investing amplifier gain frequency response test
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Investing amplifier gain frequency response test

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The reactance X C of capacitors depends on the frequency and the value of the capacitor, it satisfies the following formula :. Independently of the value of the capacitor, when the frequency is low, X C tends to be high. Near DC signals, capacitors behave therefore as open circuits.

On the other hand, when the frequency increases X C tends to zero and capacitors act as short circuits. At low input frequencies, the coupling capacitors will more likely block the signal, since X C 1 and X C3 are higher, more voltage drop will be observed across C 1 and C 3. This results in a lower voltage gain. There is another type of capacitors that affect the frequency response of the amplifier and is not represented in Figure 2.

They are known as internal transistor capacitors and represented in Figure 3 below :. Whereas the coupling and bypass capacitors act as high-pass filter they block low frequencies , these internal capacitors behave differently. However, if the frequency increases, more signal passes through them instead of going in the base branch of the transistor, therefore decreasing the voltage gain. A very important formula is given in Equation 3 and links the cutoff frequency of a RC filter :.

First of all we consider the input high-pass filter R in C 1. As explained in previous tutorials, R in is the total input impedance of the amplifier. The low cutoff frequency of the bypass structure is thus :. One last thing we need to understand before plotting the Bode graph is about the slope out of the midrange values.

This value means for high-pass filters resp. When multiple filters are blocking the same range of frequencies, the roll-off is enhanced. This information can be synthesized in a Bode plot showing the low frequency response of the CEA in asymptotic representation :. High frequency response As stated previously, it is the internal transistor capacitors that will limit the gain at high frequencies acting as low-pass filters.

It can be shown that the equivalent circuit of Figure 2 at high frequency can be drawn such as presented in Figure 5 :. We can note that the coupling capacitors are not represented since they behave as short circuits at high frequencies. Moreover, the emitter branch is shorten to the ground for the same reason applying to the bypass capacitor. The information given here is summarized in a Bode plot representing the high frequency response of the CEA in asymptotic representation :.

Conclusion We have presented some key-concepts such as the decibel unit and the cutoff frequency in order to understand the idea of frequency response. We have seen that many different types of capacitors influence both the low and high frequency response of amplifiers.

Coupling and bypass capacitors indeed limit the low frequency response whereas the internal transistor capacitors limit the high frequency response. In the two last sections, we show a step by step method to determine separately the low and high frequency response of a typical CEA configuration. By merging the two Bode graphs obtained for the low and high frequency responses in Figure 4 and 6 , we can now plot the overall frequency response of the CEA configuration :.

Frequency Response of Amplifiers Boris Poupet bpoupet hotmail. Introduction As such for any electronic circuit, the behavior of amplifiers is affected by the frequency of the signal on their input terminal. Definitions Before defining in details the frequency response, we need to present the unit of decibel dB and the logarithmic scale related to it. A simplified Bode graph of an amplifier is shown in the Figure 1 below : fig 1 : Typical Bode graph of an amplifier.

More tutorials in Amplifiers. Connect with. I allow to create an account. When you login first time using a Social Login button, we collect your account public profile information shared by Social Login provider, based on your privacy settings. Although gain to d. Also, signal sources can carry d. It is best not to pass very low frequencies through valve amplifiers because the output transformers overload saturate early below 5Hz.

A 10Hz lower limit is a good idea here. Although valves can amplify high audio frequencies without difficulty, the presence of reactance in the output transformer usually limits this ability. A well designed and built output transformer can reach 50kHz without peaking. So a frequency response of 5HzkHz, within 1dB limits, is common, and 20HzkHz is the narrowest acceptable result. Some amplifiers have flat frequency response over a much wider bandwidth, but this is rare. Tone controls alter frequency response by cutting or boosting bass and treble.

Old style controls had a gross affect and unbalanced the sound in a not very useful way. Modern controls boost or cut only frequency extremes and should ideally give a plateau cut and boost at low settings to effectively compensate for common loudspeaker imbalances.

And finally the phono stage, when fitted, is the only part of an amplifier that does not have a flat frequency response. It is fitted with an equalisation circuit that boosts bass and cuts treble. We measure frequency response in amplifiers with a simple manual sweep generator and an HPB that measures high frequency level, and an HPA that is able to measure accurately from 10Hz down to d. Initially, volume control is set to maximum and input level adjusted to give an output of a few volts.

Then we measure again at half volume. The two results should be identical, or at least close. Unfortunately, designers commonly forget that capacitive loading seen by the output slider of the volume control will curtail frequency response most at half volume resistance wise and quite often frequency response falls to a minimum, sometimes an unacceptable one, at half volume.

The solution is to decrease capacitive loading or decrease the value of the potentiometer; a 10k pot will always be less susceptible than a k pot. A 10k volume control set to half volume, loaded by 2nF, rolls off treble - see below. This is an LT Spice analysis diagram. Frequency response rolled down by excessive capacitive loading of the volume control - a not uncommon problem. This analysis performed by LT Spice. We measure tone controls in real time by passing noise through the amplifier and looking at response on a spectrum analyser.

This makes it quick and easy to look at what a control can do over its entire operating range.

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