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Xe Currency Converter. These are the highest points the exchange rate has been at in the last 30 and day periods. These are the lowest points the exchange rate has been at in the last 30 and day periods. These are the average exchange rates of these two currencies for the last 30 and 90 days.

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Derivative trading tutorial

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They do this through added income, protection, and even leverage. A popular example would be using options as an effective hedge against a declining stock market to limit downside losses. Options can also generate recurring income. Additionally, they are often used for speculative purposes, such as wagering on the direction of a stock. There is no free lunch with stocks and bonds. Options are no different. Options trading involves certain risks that the investor must be aware of before making a trade.

This is why, when trading options with a broker, you usually see a disclaimer similar to the following. Options involve risks and are not suitable for everyone. Options trading can be speculative in nature and carry a substantial risk of loss. Options belong to the larger group of securities known as derivatives. A derivative's price is dependent on or derived from the price of something else. Options are derivatives of financial securities—their value depends on the price of some other asset.

Examples of derivatives include calls, puts, futures, forwards , swaps , and mortgage-backed securities, among others. Options are a type of derivative security. An option is a derivative because its price is intrinsically linked to the price of something else. If you buy an options contract , it grants you the right but not the obligation to buy or sell an underlying asset at a set price on or before a certain date. A call option gives the holder the right to buy a stock and a put option gives the holder the right to sell a stock.

Think of a call option as a down payment on a future purchase. A potential homeowner sees a new development going up. That person may want the right to purchase a home in the future but will only want to exercise that right after certain developments around the area are built. The potential homebuyer would benefit from the option of buying or not. Well, they can—you know it as a non-refundable deposit.

The potential homebuyer needs to contribute a down payment to lock in that right. With respect to an option, this cost is known as the premium. It is the price of the option contract. This is one year past the expiration of this option.

Now the homebuyer must pay the market price because the contract has expired. Now, think of a put option as an insurance policy. The policy has a face value and gives the insurance holder protection in the event the home is damaged. What if, instead of a home, your asset was a stock or index investment? There are four things you can do with options:.

Buying stock gives you a long position. Buying a call option gives you a potential long position in the underlying stock. Short-selling a stock gives you a short position. Selling a naked or uncovered call gives you a potential short position in the underlying stock. Buying a put option gives you a potential short position in the underlying stock. Selling a naked or unmarried put gives you a potential long position in the underlying stock. Keeping these four scenarios straight is crucial. People who buy options are called holders and those who sell options are called writers of options.

Here is the important distinction between holders and writers:. Speculation is a wager on future price direction. A speculator might think the price of a stock will go up, perhaps based on fundamental analysis or technical analysis. A speculator might buy the stock or buy a call option on the stock. Speculating with a call option—instead of buying the stock outright—is attractive to some traders because options provide leverage.

Options were really invented for hedging purposes. Hedging with options is meant to reduce risk at a reasonable cost. Here, we can think of using options like an insurance policy. Just as you insure your house or car, options can be used to insure your investments against a downturn. Imagine that you want to buy technology stocks. But you also want to limit losses. By using put options, you could limit your downside risk and enjoy all the upside in a cost-effective way.

For short sellers , call options can be used to limit losses if the underlying price moves against their trade—especially during a short squeeze. In terms of valuing option contracts, it is essentially all about determining the probabilities of future price events.

The more likely something is to occur, the more expensive an option that profits from that event would be. For instance, a call value goes up as the stock underlying goes up. This is the key to understanding the relative value of options. The less time there is until expiry, the less value an option will have.

This is because the chances of a price move in the underlying stock diminish as we draw closer to expiry. This is why an option is a wasting asset. Because time is a component of the price of an option, a one-month option is going to be less valuable than a three-month option. This is because with more time available, the probability of a price move in your favor increases, and vice versa.

Accordingly, the same option strike that expires in a year will cost more than the same strike for one month. This wasting feature of options is a result of time decay. Volatility also increases the price of an option.

This is because uncertainty pushes the odds of an outcome higher. If the volatility of the underlying asset increases, larger price swings increase the possibilities of substantial moves both up and down. Greater price swings will increase the chances of an event occurring.

Therefore, the greater the volatility, the greater the price of the option. Options trading and volatility are intrinsically linked to each other in this way. On most U. The majority of the time, holders choose to take their profits by trading out closing out their position.

This means that option holders sell their options in the market, and writers buy their positions back to close. Fluctuations in option prices can be explained by intrinsic value and extrinsic value , which is also known as time value. An option's premium is the combination of its intrinsic value and time value. Intrinsic value is the in-the-money amount of an options contract, which, for a call option, is the amount above the strike price that the stock is trading.

Time value represents the added value an investor has to pay for an option above the intrinsic value. This is the extrinsic value or time value. So the price of the option in our example can be thought of as the following:. In real life, options almost always trade at some level above their intrinsic value, because the probability of an event occurring is never absolutely zero, even if it is highly unlikely. Call options and put options can only function as effective hedges when they limit losses and maximize gains.

In such a scenario, your put options expire worthless. If the price declines as you bet it would in your put options , then your maximum gains are also capped. Therefore, your gains are not capped and are unlimited. The table below summarizes gains and losses for options buyers. Call options and put options are used in a variety of situations. The table below outlines some use cases for call and put options. As mentioned earlier, traders use options to speculate and hedge. To maximize their returns, traders track options prices and employ sophisticated strategies, such as a strangle or an iron condor.

Here is a quick introduction to some of the strategies that are fairly simple but effective in making money. You can find out more about options strategies here. As the name indicates, going long on a call involves buying call options, betting that the price of the underlying asset will increase with time. Therefore, a long call promises unlimited gains. If the stock goes in the opposite price direction i. In a short call, the trader is on the opposite side of the trade i. A covered call limits their losses.

In a covered call, the trader already owns the underlying asset. Thus, a covered call limits losses and gains because the maximum profit is limited to the amount of premiums collected. Covered calls writers can buy back the options when they are close to in the money. Experienced traders use covered calls to generate income from their stock holdings and balance out tax gains made from other trades.

The losses are also capped because the trader can let the options expire worthless if prices move in the opposite direction. Therefore, the maximum losses that the trader will experience are limited to the premium amounts paid. In a short put, the trader will write an option betting on a price increase and sell it to buyers.

In this case, the maximum gains for a trader are limited to the premium amount collected. However, the maximum losses can be unlimited because she will have to buy the underlying asset to fulfill her obligations if buyers decide to exercise their option. Despite the prospect of unlimited losses, a short put can be a useful strategy if the trader is reasonably certain that the price will increase.

The trader can buy back the option when its price is close to being in the money and generates income through the premium collected. American options can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and the expiration date. European options are different from American options in that they can only be exercised at the end of their lives on their expiration date.

The distinction between American and European options has nothing to do with geography, only with early exercise. Many options on stock indexes are of the European type. Because the right to exercise early has some value, an American option typically carries a higher premium than an otherwise identical European option. This is because the early exercise feature is desirable and commands a premium.

There are also exotic options , which are exotic because there might be a variation on the payoff profiles from the plain vanilla options. Or they can become totally different products all together with "optionality" embedded in them. For example, binary options have a simple payoff structure that is determined if the payoff event happens regardless of the degree.

Other types of exotic options include knock-out, knock-in, barrier options, lookback options, Asian options , and Bermuda options. Again, exotic options are typically for professional derivatives traders. Options can also be categorized by their duration. Short-term options are those that generally expire within a year. Long-term options with expirations greater than a year are classified as long-term equity anticipation securities , or LEAPs.

LEAPs are identical to regular options except that they have longer durations. You can read a more detailed discussion of options and taxes here. Options can also be distinguished by when their expiration date falls. Sets of options now expire weekly on each Friday, at the end of the month, or even on a daily basis.

Index and ETF options also sometimes offer quarterly expiries. More and more traders are finding option data through online sources. Though each source has its own format for presenting the data, the key components generally include the following variables:. The simplest options position is a long call or put by itself. This position profits if the price of the underlying rises falls , and your downside is limited to the loss of the option premium spent. This position pays off if the underlying price rises or falls dramatically; however, if the price remains relatively stable, you lose premium on both the call and the put.

Options: These contracts are quite similar to futures and forwards. However, there is one key difference. Once you buy an options contract, you are not obligated to hold the terms of the agreement. This means, even if you hold a contract to buy shares by the expiry date, you are not required to.

Options contracts are traded on the stock exchange. Read more about what is options trading. Suppose you buy a Futures contract of Infosys shares at Rs 3, — the stock price of the IT company currently in the spot market. A month later, the contract is slated to expire. At this time, the stock is trading at Rs 3, This means, you make a profit of Rs.

Had the price remained unchanged, you would have received nothing. Similarly, if the stock price fell by Rs. As we can see, the above contract depends upon the price of the underlying asset — Infosys shares. Similarly, derivatives trading can be conducted on the indices also. Nifty Futures is a very commonly traded derivatives contract in the stock markets. The underlying security in the case of a Nifty Futures contract would be the share Nifty index.

Trading in the derivatives market is a lot similar to that in the cash segment of the stock market. Thus, buying stock futures and options contracts is similar to buying shares of the same underlying stock, but without taking delivery of the same. In the case of index futures, the change in the number of index points affects your contract, thus replicating the movement of a stock price. So, you can actually trade in index and stock contracts in just the same way as you would trade in shares.

As said earlier, trading in the derivatives market is very similar to trading in the cash segment of the stock markets. If you want to read up more about derivatives expiry, you can visit here. Unlike purchasing stocks from the cash market, when you purchase futures contracts you are required to deposit only a percentage of the value of your outstanding position with the stock exchange, irrespective of whether you buy or sell futures. This mandatory deposit, which is called margin money, covers an initial margin and an exposure margin.

These margins act as a risk containment measure for the exchanges and serve to preserve the integrity of the market. You are expected to deposit the initial margin upfront. How much you have to deposit is decided by the stock exchange. It is prescribed as a percentage of the total value of your outstanding position. It varies for different positions as it takes into account the average volatility of a stock over a specified time period and the interest cost.

This initial margin is adjusted daily depending upon the market value of your open positions. Congrats, now you know about Futures trading. What are the types of options and how to trade them? Click here to know more. For Customer Service, dial Write to us at service. No need to issue cheques by investors while subscribing to IPO.

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Please do not share your online trading password with anyone as this could weaken the security of your account and lead to unauthorized trades or losses. This cautionary note is as per Exchange circular dated 15th May, Clients are required to keep all their account related information up-to-date including details like email id, mobile number, address, bank details, demat details, income details etc. To update the details, client may get in touch with our designated customer service desk or approach the branch for assistance.

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We request you to update your Bank account details to facilitate direct transfer to your linked bank account. You may approach our designated customer service desk or your branch to know the Bank details updation procedure. Exchange advisory: Investors are advised to exercise caution while taking investment decisions in these unpredictable times. Clients are also encouraged to keep track of the underlying physical as well as international commodity markets.

Clients are advised to undertake transactions after understanding the nature of the contractual relationship into which they are entering and the extent of its exposure to risk. Clients are further advised to follow sound risk management practices and not to be carried away by unfounded rumors, tips etc. Read the notification here. In case of any queries, start instant Chat with our Customer Service team or WhatsApp 'Hi' on or email us at kscustomer. Benefits: i. Effective Communication ii.

Speedy redressal of the grievances. Telephone No. No 21, Opp. Telephone No: Skip to main content. Account Login Not Logged In. What are derivatives: Derivatives are financial contracts that derive their value from an underlying asset.

The value of the underlying assets changes every now and then. What is the use of derivatives: In the Indian markets, futures and options are standardized contracts, which can be freely traded on exchanges. Benefit from arbitrage: When you buy low in one market and sell high in the other market, it called arbitrage trading. Protect your securities against fluctuations in prices The derivative market offers products that allow you to hedge yourself against a fall in the price of shares that you possess.

Transfer of risk: By far, the most important use of these derivatives is the transfer of market risk from risk-averse investors to those with an appetite for risk. Derivatives trading participants. First do your research. This is more important for the derivatives market. However, remember that the strategies need to differ from that of the stock market. For example, you may wish you buy stocks that are likely to rise in the future.

In this case, you conduct a buy transaction. In the derivatives market, this would need you to enter into a sell transaction. So the strategy would differ. Arrange for the requisite margin amount. Stock market rules require you to constantly maintain your margin amount. This means, you cannot withdraw this amount from your trading account at any point in time until the trade is settled. Also remember that the margin amount changes as the price of the underlying stock rises or falls.

So, always keep extra money in your account. Conduct the transaction through your trading account. You will have to first make sure that your account allows you to trade in derivatives. If not, consult your brokerage or stock broker and get the required services activated. Once you do this, you can place an order online or on phone with your broker.

Select your stocks and their contracts on the basis of the amount you have in hand, the margin requirements, the price of the underlying shares, as well as the price of the contracts. Yes, you do have to pay a small amount to buy the contract. Ensure all this fits your budget. You can wait until the contract is scheduled to expiry to settle the trade.

In such a case, you can pay the whole amount outstanding, or you can enter into an opposing trade. If this amount is higher than Rs 3,, you book profits. If not, you will make losses. Demat account: This is the account which stores your securities in electronic format.

It is unique to every investor and trader. Trading account: This is the account through which you conduct trades. The account number can be considered your identity in the markets. This makes the trade unique to you. It is linked to the demat account , and thus ensures that YOUR shares go to your demat account. Click here if you want to open a trinity account that relives you from the hassles of operating different demat, trading and savings bank accounts. Margin maintenance: This pre-requisite is unique to derivatives trading.

While many in the cash segment too use margins to conduct trades, this is predominantly used in the derivatives segment. The exposure margin is used to control volatility and excessive speculation in the derivatives markets. This margin is also stipulated by the exchanged and levied on the value of the contract that you buy or sell. This covers the daily difference between the cost of the contract and its closing price on the day of purchase.

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However, a forward contract distinguishes itself by over-the-counter trading exchanges rather than a centralized exchange. That means buyers and sellers can customize a buy and sell contract between two parties. On the other hand, options are derivatives that allow an individual to have the right to buy or sell an underlying asset at a given price at the end of the maturity period.

However, there are no obligations attached to options contracts. There are two types of options contracts;. Typically, the perpetual contracts tend to mimic the concept of the margin-based spot market. Thus, the trade is close to the underlying reference of Index Price. However, depending on the contract specifications, the agreement can differ from its funding rate, leverage, and more. Unlike futures contracts, perpetual swaps witness a lower price movement, making them a suitable tool for investors seeking long positions.

Crypto traders use derivatives for risk management, also known— hedging. Since derivatives are commonly used to speculate future prices in a volatile market, traders usually use them to protect their portfolios against any price fluctuations. For example, a crypto trader would hedge with perpetual swaps that involve betting in the opposite direction to mitigate potential risks of a severe loss, especially from the market dump. Instead of selling, you can open a short position with leverage in the perpetual swaps market, so you will profit from the spot trading when the BTC price soars.

And when the BTC spot price falls, you minimize losses from the initial position through the short position gains. Another common use for derivatives in crypto trading is for price speculation of assets without purchasing the underlying asset. Traders can buy a futures contract instead of buying an actual Bitcoin or altcoins.

That means a trader only needs to spend a minimal amount to gain exposure in the market. So, as the price of the underlying asset fluctuates, the trader can adjust his position accordingly. Most traders would use put options to manage their risks. Derivatives trading has its advantages as well as limitations.

Some of the prerequisites for derivatives trading are:. Considering these prerequisites for crypto derivatives trading, ideal investors for derivates include:. For investors planning to trade in crypto derivatives, the first step is to register on a crypto exchange or traditional exchange that facilities crypto derivatives trading. Here is a step-by-step process a crypto trader needs to follow.

Ideally, the trader should develop a plan before trading in derivatives. Some exchanges offer lower fees for their native tokens, so it could be wise to use them for cost-efficiency. Crypto derivatives trading offers several growth prospects to the right trader. The trick is to devise a strategy before starting with crypto derivatives.

A trader should analyze and understand the risks associated with derivatives trading before making the first trade. Be the first to get critical insights and analysis of the crypto world: subscribe now to our newsletter. Since the financial crisis, OTC markets are, however, increasingly being regulated. Some of the regulations include:. Investors trade in contracts that have been identified in the exchange.

Traditionally trading was done using the outcry system Investors met at the exchange floor and used signals to indicate their proposed trades. Currently, trading is done electronically through a computer. The years saw the exchange-traded market and the OTC markets growing by a factor of 6 and 7. An option contract is an agreement between two parties to transact on underlying security at a predetermined price called the strike price before some date called the expiration date.

Options not only hedge against risk but also provide additional protection against adverse price movements. In other words, they protect against negative risk while preserving upward payoffs. All European options can only be exercised at maturity.

On the other hand, American options may be exercised any time between the issue date and expiration. As such, the price of an option is directly proportional to its maturity date. For example, the premium paid for an out-of-the-money option on Apple expiring in one month will be less than the premium paid for an option with the same strike price expiring in one year.

A call option gives the holder the right but not the obligation to buy the underlying asset at the strike price before the expiration date. On the other hand, a put option gives the holder the right but not the obligation to sell the underlying asset at the strike price before the expiration date.

A forward contract is a non-standardized contract — traded in an over-the-counter market —between two parties that specifies the price and the quantity of an asset to be delivered in the future. Instead, they are traded in the OTC market. One party takes a long position and agrees to buy the underlying asset at a specified price on the specified date, while the other party takes a short position and agrees to sell the asset on that same date at that same price.

The agreed-upon price is called the forward price. The price at which the dealer wants to buy is called the bid price, while the price the dealer wants to sell is called the ask price. Consider a forward contract on a Stock. The payoff of the long and short positions is given below. The graphs above imply that for a trader in a long position, the payoff will be beneficial when the underlying price which is the stock price in our case is high.

On the other hand, for a trader in a short position, the payoff will be beneficial with a lower underlying price. The spot bid and ask prices per one euro are CAD 1. The 6-month bid and ask prices are CAD 1. Suppose that company X enters into a long position to buy 10 million euros in six months. Based on the 6-month bid-ask exchange rates, company X buys 10 million euros for CAD 1.

Consequently, the profit made by company X is. A futures contract is a standardized, legally binding agreement — traded in on an exchange — between two parties that specifies the price to trade a given asset commodity or financial instrument at a specified future date. Note that future contract offers similar payoffs as forward contracts.

However, futures contracts trade on exchanges; that is, the underlying asset and possible maturity date are clearly stated in the contract. Options are derivatives that offer the investor the right but not the obligation to buy or sell an asset in the future at a fixed price. Options can be found on exchanges and in the over-the-counter market. There are two types of options: call and put options. In a call option, the holder has the right but not the obligation to buy the underlying asset for example, stock at a specified time within a specified period.

In a put option, the holder has the right but not the obligation to sell the underlying asset at a specified price within a specified period. An option contract involves two parties: the party with a long position and a short position in the option. In the case of a call option, the party in a long position has the right but not the obligation to purchase an asset from a short position at a specified price called the strike price or exercise price within a given period.

For the put options, the party in a long position has the right but not the obligation to sell an asset from a short position at a specified price called the strike price or exercise price within a given period. Consider the buyer of the call option long position in the call option. The payoff of the short position in the call option is shown below:.

To the seller short position in the put option ,. Hedging is the use of derivatives like futures and options to reduce or eliminate financial exposure. Before delving further into hedging, it is imperative to understand the following points:. An investor with a long position in an asset can hedge the exposure by entering into a short futures contract or buying a put option. An investor with a short position in an asset can hedge the exposure by entering into a long futures contract or buying a call option.

A forward contract helps the hedger to lock in the price of the underlying security. Forward contracts do not need any investment at the onset. However, the hedger gives up any movement that may have had positive results if they left the position unhedged. Let us look at an example:. Suppose a U. The current exchange rate stands at 1. The management is worried that the pound might depreciate against the dollar. It decides to hedge the exchange risk with a forward contract at 1.

Suppose the company does not hedge the position and the exchange rate in six months turns out to be 1. Suppose further that the company does hedge the position at 1. Hedgers use derivatives to reduce or remove risk exposure. We have already discussed how hedging works above. Consider the following example where foreign exchange risk is hedged using options.

A risk manager in company X located in the U. How can the risk manager hedge again foreign exchange risk using a call option? The risk manager can hedge against the foreign exchange risk by buying the call option with a strike price of USD 1. If in six months the exchange rate is more than USD 1. If the exchange rate is less than USD 1.

How can the risk manager this position against the foreign exchange rate? Alternatively, the risk manager could buy the European put option to sell 10 million euros at an exchange rate of USD 1. If in six months the exchange is less than USD 1.

On the other hand, if the exchange is greater than USD 1. Speculative trading regarding futures contracts refers to the trading of futures contracts without the intention of obtaining the underlying commodity. Thus, speculators basically make bets on the market, unlike hedgers, whose priority is to eliminate exposures. Speculators are motivated by the leverage that comes with futures contracts in which no initial investment is required.

The margin is no more than a percentage of the notional value of the underlying. The gains or losses associated with futures can be quite large, and payoffs are symmetrical. Speculators trade in futures, intending to resell these contracts before maturity. They expect the futures price to move in their favor and make a profit when selling the contracts. However, there can be no guarantees that the price will move in their favor, and therefore this trading strategy is also laden with risks.

However, options have asymmetrical payoffs. In a nutshell, speculators buy assets for time and apply different strategies to benefit from price changes. The current stock price is CAD50, and speculators believe that in one month, this price would have increased to at least CAD For convenience, assume that each call option represents 1 share of the underlying stock. The speculator has an initial capital of CAD If, at the end of one month, the stock price is CAD56, which strategy is more profitable?

Arbitrage opportunities exist when prices of similar assets are set at different levels. Therefore, an arbitrageur attempts to make a risk-free profit by buying the asset in the cheaper market and simultaneously selling it in the overpriced market. However, arbitrage opportunities are normally short-lived. At the end of the day, the asset will be priced equally in both markets. There are no guarantees the market price will move in favor of the derivative trader.

For example, an investor who is short in a put option has no guarantees that the underlying price will stay above the strike price, allowing them to keep the premium. This risk is particularly prevalent in OTC markets where regulations are not as strict as in exchange.

Closing out a deal prior to maturity, e. Even more likely, bid-ask spreads could be so large as to represent a substantial cost. Such a move can be disastrous for the firm. A risk manager is worried that the price of gold will rise. He would like to hedge his position but is stuck between buying a futures contract on an exchange and buying a forward contract directly from a counterparty. The manager finds that the futures price is higher than the forward price. Both types of contracts would have the same maturity and delivery conditions.

All of these factors would make the futures contract safer for the investor. Hence, the futures contract would most likely be more expensive than the corresponding forward. After completing this reading, you should be able to: Describe the various types Read More.

After completing this reading, you should be able to: Describe the historical background

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The underlying asset can be stocks, currencies, commodities, indices, and even interest rates. Derivatives were originally designed to help investors eliminate exchange rate risks, but their utility has grown over the years to help investors not only mitigate various types of risks but also to access more market opportunities. Derivatives are now attractive to many types of investors because they help them to remain exposed to price changes of different financial assets without actually owning them.

The most common types of derivative contracts are futures, options and CFDs. CFDs CFDs enable you to speculate on the increase or decrease in the price of global instruments like shares, currencies, indices and commodities. When you trade CFDs, you are effectively taking a contract, rather than taking hold of the underlying asset. That means you will be speculating on the price movement, rather than buying the actual asset. With CFDs, you can trade both ways, on both rising or falling markets.

That is a big benefit of trading CFDs, rather than buying stocks, for instance. This is often used for commodities, shares or currencies to offset risk. A company that needs to receive raw materials in the future, can have a reasonable price locked in. This will protect it from future price hikes. This may also protect a company from future currency exchange rate changes or even interest rate changes. This protects against currency depreciation, especially in terms of exporting products into the local currency.

The pricing of these contracts also changes based on the current supply and demand of the underlying asset and of the contracts themselves. They can be offset or liquidated before expiry. Futures are standardised to facilitate trading on the futures exchange such as the Nymex exchange for Gold.

Options Trading options on the derivatives markets gives traders the right to buy CALL or sell PUT an underlying asset at a specified price, on or before a certain date. The holder has no obligation to buy the underlying asset. This is the main difference between Options and Futures. Futures vs. Options The purpose of both futures and options is to allow people to lock in prices in advance, before the actual trade. This enables traders to protect themselves from the risk of unfavourable prices changes.

However, with futures contracts, the buyers are obligated to pay the amount specified at the agreed price when the due date arrives. With options, the buyer can decide to back out of the contract. This is a major difference between the two securities. Also, most futures markets are liquid, creating narrow bid-ask spreads, while options do not always have sufficient liquidity , especially for options that will only expire well into the future. Futures provide greater stability for trades, but they are also more rigid.

Options provide less stability, but they are also a lot less rigid. So, if you would like to have the option to back out of the trade, you should consider options. If not, then you should consider futures. Forward Contracts Financial instruments that are set up with more of an informal agreement and traded through a broker that offers traders the opportunity to buy and sell specific assets such as currencies.

Here too a price is set and paid for on a future date. This contract can also be renegotiated, so extended or closed early for a premium. Swaps Swaps are customised OTC contracts between two traders. A common example of a swap is on interest rates. Swaps are when two parties exchange cash flows or liabilities for two different securities, over a set period of time.

Derivatives can serve many important functions in a portfolio. The first reason to trade derivatives is that they provide the perfect platform for speculating on the price changes of various financial assets. Derivatives allow investors to access markets and opportunities that they could otherwise not have been exposed to. For instance, one is able to invest in Bitcoin without understanding all the technicalities of buying and securing the digital coins in online or offline wallets.

If an investor buys a Bitcoin derivative, they will earn profits when the price of Bitcoin rises without actually owning the digital currency. Investors also trade derivatives to access leverage. Leverage allows investors to boost their capital holdings in the market, effectively amplifying their profits on successful trades. But traders should always use leverage carefully because it also magnifies losses on trades that do not go in your favour.

The structure of derivatives, as well as the availability of leverage, can also help investors to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities in the market. Although uncommon nowadays, arbitrage opportunities arise due to market inefficiencies, such as a similar financial asset being priced differently on different platforms at the same time.

Another important reason to trade derivatives is to hedge risk exposure in the market. This is done by purchasing a derivative that moves in the opposite direction of an asset you own. For instance, if an investor owns Microsoft shares, they can buy a certain type of derivative, based on Microsoft share price, in this case, a Put Option, that earns profits when the price of the stock falls. In this way, the investor would have mitigated the risks of holding the stock when its prices are not appreciating.

As tradable products, derivatives allow investors to have potentially lucrative additions to their investment portfolios. They are leveraged products that can help investors spread their capital efficiently in the market and earn boosted profits, although the risks are also increased due to leveraged exposure. Derivatives have also opened up opportunities for the average retail investor, who can now access markets such as global equities, forex, bonds, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies with low fees.

These are markets that would traditionally require huge amounts of capital and sometimes even a great deal of expertise. Derivatives are also used for mitigating risks in the market. They are perfect for hedging strategies and can help investors to offset any risks or potential losses in their portfolios. Because they are leveraged products, derivatives provide a cheap and effective way to hedge against any risks in the market.

Being a margin based trading instrument, it provides good leverage opportunity which ultimately gives the rise of speculations. A futures contract gives the right to buy or sell a given amount of underlying at specified price and on or before specified date. Both parties of futures contract must exercise the contract unless they are deliverable on or before the settlement date.

Contracts of different maturities available for trading are called current month 1 month , near month 2 months and far month 3 months contracts. The month in which a contract expires is called the contract month. It gives the buyer the right to buy or sell the underlying without any obligation.

While ''Call Option'' gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy the underlying asset at a given price before given future date, ''Put Option'' gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to sell the underlying asset at a given price in future. European Options can only be exercised i. American Options can be exercised i. Contract Cycle is the period over which a contract trades. It provides for adjustment trading account which is necessitated on account of changes in prices.

Longer position taking: It gives a time leverage of up to 3 months as against days offered in other margin products. We serve cookies on this site to analyze traffic, remember your preferences, and optimize your experience.

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Home Knowledge Center Beginner Derivatives. Karvy Financial Academy. Beginner Intermediate Advanced. What is Trading Account? Derivatives Gaining a fair idea on the basics of stock markets and equity and debt instruments, we now dwell further to some extensive study in financial markets. Derivatives Derivative is a financial product whose value is derived from the underlying assets.

Features of Futures Trading: Initial margin amount of contract value is required for taking positions which is determined by exchange on the basis of SPAN plus exposure margin. Positions need to be squared off by last trading day of the contract failing which exchange will square off those positions. Index futures have indices as underlying. Options It gives the buyer the right to buy or sell the underlying without any obligation. Style of options European Options can only be exercised i.

Contract Cycle: Contract Cycle is the period over which a contract trades. Marked to Market in futures: It provides for adjustment trading account which is necessitated on account of changes in prices. Hedging: Hedging is a strategy to minimize the risk inherent in investment. Speculation: It is trading strategy aimed at making profit in short period of time with price fluctuations. Benefits of Derivatives: Hedging: It helps to safeguard against future price uncertainties Leverage: As margins required are very low, it allows higher trading exposure Potential Return: Irrespective of market conditions, one can make money Longer position taking: It gives a time leverage of up to 3 months as against days offered in other margin products.

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Financial Derivatives Explained

Introduction to derivatives and options. Basic and fundamental concepts. Free tutorial. Rating: out of Options are known as derivatives because they derive their value from an underlying asset. A stock option contract typically represents shares of the. OTC derivatives are contracts that are made privately between On the other hand, derivatives that trade on an exchange are.