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Stiffer damping makes the car more reactive and makes the car feel more stable when changing direction. Likewise, softening the rear and stiffening the front will reduce oversteer. A stiffer setting for rebound will produce better direction change from the car being more stable through chicane sections.
This can cause a rear lock up and cause a spin. Provided your FST rebound settings are correct you can run this quite soft. For extremely smooth circuits you could stiffen up the FST bump slightly to increase handling precision. Running a stiff FST rebound removes the potential for a bouncy car and controls the spring better as it returns to the ground.
However, running it too high can cause suspension creep. This is when a bump compresses the damper and before the damper has extended fully it hits the next bump and compresses further. This repeats until the suspension is bottomed out on the bump rubbers and there is no more bump travel available making the car very stiff. Therefore a middle ground needs to be found between a bouncy set up and a creeping set up to have the optimum setting.
A softer packer rate increases aero pitch sensitivity and will increase traction. The front and rear can run different values to help shift handling balance from front to rear. A stiffer packer at the front will reduce oversteer and a stiffer packer to the rear will reduce understeer and will produce a more predictable front end.
A softer packer will also provide a more comfortable and stable transition from the damper working to the bump stop taking over the damping attitude of the car and will increase stability at this point of transition. If you are experiencing understeer in these corners then you can increase front downforce.
If you are starting to oversteer then you can increase rear downforce to provide the rear with more grip. Tyre pressure can also help to control the temperature of your tyre. Once you are operating in the correct hot pressure range you should look at your tyre temperatures. If you want to increase the life span of the tyre then run the tyre at the colder end of the scale.
If you want maximum grip for sprint races operate at the higher end of the scale. To increase and decrease the temperature you can slightly increase tyre pressure to heat the tyre more or decrease it slightly to lower the temperature. If you are experiencing understeer on corner entry after being hard on the brakes then you can move more bias to the rear of the car. If you are experiencing oversteer after being hard on the brakes then you can move more bias towards the front of the car.
Only move the bias in small amounts otherwise you might upset the handling of the car. The information below is a generalisation of how to reduce oversteer and understeer on most platforms. For more specific information and more detail on how to reduce oversteer and understeer check out our full article on oversteer and understeer linked at the bottom of this article. For solving understeer and oversteer you need to recognise where in the corner it is happening.
When moving between different circuits it is ideal to alter your set up to suit the different demands that each circuit has to offer. It will take too long to provide set up tips for each and every circuit so instead we are going to suggest some changes to make when moving to different styles of circuit. For tighter twisty circuits with smaller straight sections you can run a much more aggressive set up to increase turn in speed and maximise cornering performance. First of all increase your downforce at front and rear as this will generate more cornering speed.
With that complete, increase negative camber at the front and rear. This will help increase contact patch as you carry more speed through the corner and roll onto the tyre. Next increase toe out at the front wheels. This will help for initial turn in and will help to reduce understeer.
If you have a FWD then some toe out at the rear wheels will also help to remove understeer and improve corner entry handling. For a RWD car slight toe in will still be ideal to keep the rear in control and to prevent oversteer. Weather can change in the middle of a race and cause chaos on circuit due to all the dry set ups not being able to cope in the new conditions.
There are also changes for cold circuits which can happen when moving between countries or even during 24 hour races with hot desert day time temperatures and freezing cold night time temperatures. Once tyre changes have been made where possible you can turn your attention to set up changes.
First of all you will want to soften off your anti-roll bars front and rear in order to aid cornering grip. Softening the dampers and installing slightly softer springs will also help with straight line grip on throttle and during braking allowing the sprigs and dampers to absorb some of the vehicle energy to relieve the tyres slightly.
With the softer set up you can now reduce the negative camber settings all round as the car will be cornering with less speed and less G, so the vehicle will have less tendency to roll and will roll within the dampers now that everything is softer rather than staying stiff and rolling the car onto the contact patch. The wet surface will also be constantly cooling the tyres which will bring the temperature too low and will reduce grip levels.
A way to counteract this is to slightly increase tyre pressure due to pressure, volume and temperature having a fundamental relationship of physics where if the volume remains the same the tyre size then an increase in pressure will result in an increase in temperature and vice versa. Another technique to increase tyre temperatures is to increase toe in on the front and rear axles. The toe in will help with stability on the straight sections and faster corners in the unpredictable conditions and will also scrub the contact patch, increasing the temperature of the tyre and increasing grip.
Be careful not to run too much as it could tear the tyre surface and ruin the tyre early in the race. As mentioned in the wet weather section, increasing tyre pressures slightly will help the tyre to increase in pressure due to the volume remaining fixed and the temperature therefore must increase in the air inside the tyre. To minimise blockage from suspension members and to clear the front brake scoops, there was a large vertical separation between top and bottom wishbones, the top wishbone positioned as high as possible within the inch diameter wheel rim.
That had other beneficial effects, such as reducing the loads in the wishbones, aligning the wishbone load paths with the top and bottom skins of the footwell the minimum height is controlled by regulation , and allowing a reasonably vertical angle for the pullrod. Pullrod actuation is unconventional in modern sportscar terms, but I chose it for a number of reasons. From a packaging point of view, it meant that I could fill a vacant volume with springs and dampers while keeping the bonnet line usually raised to cover pushrod-operated dampers very low.
The double-shear rocker pivot is also rather lighter than the usual single-shear pushrod type, and feeds its loads directly into the stiff intersection of footwell side and floor. The pullrod is steep and short, and can therefore be small in cross section. Obviously, the compressive loads seen by a pullrod are small, so that buckling is not a concern, and a small cross section is beneficial since the pullrod is in the cooling airflow.
The main trade-off was of course with ergonomics, where the pushrod arrangement is unbeatable. Also, I was rather constricted in the length of damper, and hence the motion ratio, I could use. For a Prototype, I would prefer around 0. I also traded off suspension link length for the reduction in bonnet height allowed by the use of pullrods.
Since the footwell must be a minimum of around mm Either of those options compromised the chassis structure too much, so I chose a short FLWB, the inboard mountings of which are bolted to the bottom corner of the footwell. That decision having been made, the FTWB length became easy to define.
My attitude to suspension geometry is pragmatic, and, in the absence of the requisite tools, fairly untrammelled by science. For example: roll centres are in actuality force-dependent, not geometry-dependent, and therefore require more sophisticated analysis tools than were available to me.
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