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A common feature in Malay romances and legends is a description of the supernatural development of a young child in the interior of some vegetable production, usually a bamboo. Sir W. Maxwell has pointed out the fact of the existence, both in Malay and Japanese legends, of the main features of this story, to which he assigns a Buddhistic origin.

He tells the story as follows:—. The site having been found and cleared, the narrative proceeds as follows:—. All the trees which grew near bent in its direction, and it looked like a state umbrella payong manuwangi 5. The Mantri and people chopped at it, but as fast as they cut down a branch on one side, a fresh one shot forth on the other, to the great astonishment of all the Rajas, Mantris, and warriors.

Puspa Vikrama Jaya hastened back to King Dasaratha and laid the matter before him. The latter was greatly surprised, and declared that he would go himself the next day and see the bamboo cut down. Next day he set out on a white elephant, attended by a splendid train of chiefs and followers, and on reaching the spot ordered the bamboo clump to be cut down. Vikrama Puspa Jaya pointed it out, shaded by the other forest trees. The king perceived that it was of very elegant appearance, and that an odour like spices and musk proceeded from it.

He told Puspa Jaya Vikrama to cut it down, and the latter drew his sword, which was as big as the stem of a cocoa-nut tree, and with one stroke cut down one of the bamboos. But immediately a fresh stem shot forth on the other side, and this happened [ 18 ] as often as a stroke was given.

Then the king grew wroth, and getting down from his elephant he drew his own sword and made a cut with it at the bamboo, which severed a stem. On this, King Dasaratha quickly unloosed his girdle and saluted the princess. Then he lifted her on to his elephant and took her to his palace escorted by music and singing. I myself have heard among the Selangor Malays similar legends to the above, which, as already pointed out, are common in Malay romances.

A parallel myth is described in the following words:—. Soon after the marriage of Nakhodah Kasim with the white Semang, 7 an unprecedented flood occurred and quantities of foam came down the river. Round the piles of the bathing-house, which, in accordance with Malay custom, stood in the bed of the river close to the bank in front of the house, the floating volumes of foam collected in a mass the size of an elephant.

The child showed no fear, and the white Semang, carefully lifting her, carried her up to the house, heralding her discovery by loud shouts to her husband. The couple adopted the child willingly, for they had no children, and they treated her thenceforward as their own. They assembled the villagers and gave them a feast, solemnly announcing their adoption of the daughter of the river and their intention of leaving to her everything that they possessed.

The usual story of the first creation of man, however, appears to be a Malay modification of Arabic beliefs. Thus we are told that man was created from the four elements—earth, air, water, and fire—in a way which the following extract, taken from a Selangor charm-book, will explain:—. But he could not get the Heart of the Earth. When he got the Heart of the Earth he 10 made from it the Image of Adam.

And the children, too, were wedded, handsome with handsome, and plain with plain. A parallel account adds that the Heart of the Earth was white, and gives a fuller description of the interview between Azrael and his formidable antagonist, the Earth. After saluting the latter in the orthodox Muhammadan fashion, Azrael explains his mission, and is met by a point-blank refusal. The following extract from a Malay treatise quoted by Newbold fairly describes the general state of Malay ideas respecting the constitution of the human body:—.

The neck is composed of 7 bones, and the back of 24 bones; bones are contained in the other members of the body. The brains weigh miscals , the blood The total of all the bones, blood-vessels, large and small, and gristles, amounts to ; and the hairs of the head to six lacs and The frame of man is divided into 40 great parts, which are again [ 23 ] subdivided. Four elements enter into his composition, viz. With these elements are connected four essences—the soul or spirit with air, love with fire, concupiscence with earth, and wisdom with water.

In dealing with this branch of the subject I will first take the case of the kings and priestly magicians who present the most clearly-marked examples of personal sanctity which are now to be found among Malays, and will then describe the chief features of the sanctity ascribed to all ranks alike in respect of certain special parts of the ordinary human anatomy. The handle is covered with a substance flowing from it like a horse-tail, dyed crimson, sometimes crimson and white; this is generally of hair.

This is the sword, Chora sa mendang kian i. He brought with him the insignia of royalty, namely, the royal drums gandang nobat , the pipes nafiri , the flutes sarunei and bangsi , the betel-box puan naga taru , the sword chora mandakini , the sword perbujang , the sceptre kayu gamit , the jewel kamala , the surat chiri , the seal of state chap halilintar , and the umbrella ubar-ubar.

All these were enclosed in a box called Baninan. Of the Pahang regalia I have not been able to obtain a list with any pretensions to completeness, but from a remark by Mr. Clifford the present Resident in one of his books, they would appear to be essentially the same as those of the other Federated States. But the extraordinary strength of the Malay belief in the supernatural powers of the regalia of their sovereigns can only be thoroughly realised after a study of their romances, in which their kings are credited with all the attributes of inferior gods, whose birth, as indeed every subsequent act of their after life, is attended by the most amazing prodigies.

They are usually invulnerable, and are gifted with miraculous powers, such as that of transforming themselves, and of returning to or recalling others to life; in fact they have, in every way, less of the man about them and more of the god. Next came his coat.

Its deadly qualities came down to it from the sky, and if cleaned with acid at the source of a river, the fish at the embouchure came floating up dead. It had been woven in no ordinary way, but had been the work of his mother from her youth. Wearing it he was provided with all the love-compelling secrets.

The names of a number of charms to excite passion are given, but they cannot be explained in the compass of a note. He wore the Malay national garment—the sarong. It was not of the fashion of the clothing of the rajas of the present day, but of those of olden time. If it were put in the sun it got damper, if it were soaked in water it became drier. A slight tear mended by darning only increased [ 32 ] its value, instead of lessening it, for the thread for the purpose cost one hundred dollars.

In addition to the sanctity of the regalia, the king, as the divine man, possesses an infinite multitude of prerogatives which enter into almost every act of his private life, and thus completely separate him from the generality of his fellow-men.

He was the first who prohibited the wearing of yellow clothes in public, not even a handkerchief of that colour, nor curtains, nor hangings, nor large pillow-cases, nor coverlets, nor any envelope of any bundle, nor the cloth lining of a house, excepting only the waist cloth, the coat, and the turban.

He also prohibited the constructing of houses with abutments, or smaller houses connected with them; also suspended pillars or timbers tiang gantong ; nor timbers the tops of which project above the roofs, and also summer houses. None of these prohibited articles did he permit to be worn by a person, however rich he might be, unless by his particular licence, a privilege which the raja has ever since possessed. He also forbade any one to enter the palace unless wearing a cloth petticoat 35 of decent length, with his creese in front; 36 and a shoulder-cloth; and no person was permitted to enter unless in this array, and if any one wore his creese behind him, it was incumbent on the porter of the gate to seize it.

Such is the order of former time respecting prohibition by the Malayu rajas, and whatever is contrary to this is a transgression against the raja, and ought to incur a fine of five cati. A number of other particulars bearing on this subject will be found in other parts of the text, and in the Appendix references are given to other works for additional details, which are too numerous to be recorded here. Should the deceased be of high rank, the cloth extends from the house where the corpse is deposited, to the burial-ground.

Similar prohibitions are still in force at the courts of the Malay Sultans in the Peninsula, though a yellow umbrella is now generally substituted for the white, at least in Selangor. A distinction is also now drawn between manufactured yellow cloth and cloth which has been dyed yellow with saffron, the wrongful use of the latter the genuine article being regarded as the more especially heinous act.

In addition to the royal monopoly of such objects [ 35 ] as have been mentioned, Sir W. Maxwell mentions three royal perquisites larangan raja , i. It is said to yield a very large percentage of oil. A description of the gathering of the eggs of river turtles by the royal party in Perak will be found in Malay Sketches. These titles, strange as it may seem, are often the reverse of complimentary, and occasionally ridiculous. It must not be forgotten, too, in discussing the divine attributes of the Malay king, that he is firmly believed to possess a personal influence over the works of nature, such as the growth of the crops and the bearing of fruit-trees.

This same property is supposed to reside in a lesser degree in his delegates, and even in the persons of Europeans in charge of districts. Thus I have frequently known in Selangor the success or failure of the rice crops attributed to a change of district officers, and in one case I even heard an outbreak of ferocity which occurred among man-eating crocodiles laid at the door of a most zealous and able, though perhaps occasionally somewhat unsympathetic, representative of the Government.

I may add that royal blood is supposed by many Malays to be white, and this is the pivot on which the plot of not a few Malay folk-tales is made to turn. Finally, it must be pointed out that the greatest possible importance is attached to the method of saluting the king.

The hands closed together like the rootlets of the bakong palm The fingers one on the other like a pile of sirih 47 leaves. Little details such as these are of immense importance in the eyes of the Malays, and not without reason, seeing that in an Independent Native State many a man has come by his death for carelessness in their observance. A flagrant infringement of any of the prerogatives of the Sultan, such as those I have described, is certain, it is thought, to prove fatal, more or less immediately.

These buffaloes had a covering of cloth put over them, their horns covered, and a crescent-shaped breast-ornament dokoh hung about their necks. The only person who, in former days, was not in the least affected by the royal taboos which protected the regalia from the common touch was the now I believe extinct official who held the post of Court Physician Maharaja Lela. The following story though I tell it against myself is perhaps the best illustration I can give of the great danger supposed to be incurred by those who meddle with the paraphernalia of royalty.

Models, representing part of the regalia of H. His Highness himself informed me that they had once been kept in the house itself, but when there they were the source of infinite annoyance and anxiety to the inmates on account of their very uncanny behaviour!

Both these strange coincidences were readily confirmed by the present Sultan on an occasion when I happened to question the authenticity of the story, and as His Highness is one of the most enlightened and truthful of men, such confirmation cannot easily be set aside. In a Malay village news spreads quickly, and the report of my indisposition, after what was no doubt regarded as an act of extraordinary rashness, appears to have made a profound impression, and the result of it was that a Malay who probably considered himself indebted to me for some assistance he had received, bound himself by a vow to offer sacrifice at the shrine of a famous local saint should I be permitted to return to the district.

These parts of the anatomy are, in particular, the head, the hair, the teeth, the ears, and the nails, all of which I will take in their order. The head, in the first place, is undoubtedly still considered by the Malays to possess some modified degree of sanctity.

If any part of the head is injured, nothing less than a goat will suffice the animal being killed and both parties bathed in the blood ; if the upper part of the body, the slaughter of a cock to be disposed of in a similar way will be held to be sufficient reparation, and so on, the sacrifice becoming of less value in proportion as the injured part is farther from the head. So, too, Mr. From the principle of the sanctity of the head flows, no doubt, the necessity of using the greatest circumspection [ 44 ] during the process of cutting the hair.

Thus I was told that in former days Malay men usually wore their hair long, and I myself have seen an instance of this at Jugra in Selangor in the person of a Malay 59 of the old school, who was locally famous on this account. So, too, during the forty days which must elapse before the purification of a woman after the birth of her child, the father of the child is forbidden to cut his hair, and a similar abstention is said to have been formerly incumbent upon all persons either prosecuting a journey or engaging in war.

Accordingly he takes care that those severed portions of himself shall not be left in places where they might either be exposed to accidental injury, or fall into the hands of malicious persons who might work magic on them to his detriment or death. These latter are usually of brass, are often several inches in length, and are made so [ 46 ] as to fit on to the tips of the fingers. Occasionally a brass ring with a small peacock, or some such bird, of the same material will be attached to the end of the nail by a minute brass chain.

The practice of wearing long nails is sometimes attributed to Chinese influence, but it is hard to see why this particular detail of Malay custom, which is quite in keeping with the general trend of Malay ideas about the person, should be supposed to be derived from China. The borrowing, if any, is much more likely to have been on the part of the Chinese, who undoubtedly imported many Indian ideas along with Buddhism.

The custom appears to be followed, moreover, in many places, such as the interior of Sumatra, where Chinese influence is non-existent. In Siam, again, it appears to obtain very strongly; 63 but no reason has yet been shown for supposing that this is anything but an instance of the similarity of results independently arrived at by nations starting with similar premisses.

The ear-boring and tooth-filing ceremonies which still not infrequently take place at the age of puberty in both sexes are of no less religious import than the rite of cutting the first lock. The main details of these ceremonies will be described in a later part of this book. To the same category of sacred things having physical connection with the body should doubtless be referred such objects as the eyebrows, the saliva, and soil taken from the naked footstep, all of which are utilised by the magician to achieve his nefarious ends.

This mannikin, which is usually invisible but is supposed to be about as big as the thumb, corresponds exactly in shape, proportion, and even in complexion, to its embodiment or casing sarong , i. Hither, Filmy One, come hither! These quasi-human attributes of the soul being so complete, it is an easy stretch of the imagination to provide it with a house, which is generally in practice identified with the body of its owner, but may also be identified with any one of its temporary domiciles.

Thus in the charm already quoted we read—. And this is no mere chance expression, for in another charm the soul is adjured in these words:— [ 49 ]. As you remember your own House and House-ladder, remember me. Come and sleep with me, and share my pillow. It would probably be wrong to assume the foregoing expressions to have always been merely figurative.

Rather, perhaps, we should consider them as part of a singularly complete and consistent animistic system formerly invented and still held by the Malays. And when you have succeeded in getting it into your power the abducted and now imprisoned soul will naturally enjoy any latitude [ 50 ] allowed to and suffer from any mutilation of its temporary domicile or embodiment.

Every man is supposed it would appear from Malay charms to possess seven souls 72 in all, or, perhaps, I should more accurately say, a sevenfold soul. And, finally, it might explain why the lime-branch which is hung up in the mosquito-curtain in another form of soul-abduction 76 is required to possess seven fruits on a single stalk, i.

At the present day the ordinary Malay talks usually of only a single soul, although he still keeps up the old phraseology in his charms and charm-books. For the rest, it would appear that there may be some method in the selection and arrangement of colours.

Now in all, I believe, of what are now called the Federated Malay States, and probably in all Malay States whatsoever, yellow is the colour used by royalty, whereas the more exalted and sacred colour, white with occasional lapses into yellow , has been adopted by Malay medicine-men as the colour most likely to conciliate the spirits and demons with whom they have to deal.

Thus the soul-cloth, which, by the way, is always five cubits long lima hasta , is sometimes white and much more rarely yellow, and hence in the first instance just quoted, the yellow cloth, being, next to white, of the colour which is most complimentary to the demons, is the one which is put outside; and in the second instance, for similar reasons, the white cosmetic is to be used first.

The working out of this system, however, must await fresh evidence, and all I would do now is to emphasise the importance of colour in such investigations, and to urge the collection of fresh material. Hitherto I have treated of human souls only, but animal, mineral, and vegetable souls will now be briefly discussed.

Speaking generally, I believe the soul to be, within certain limits, conceived as a diminutive but exact counterpart of its own embodiment, so that an Animal-soul would be like an animal, a Bird-soul like a bird; however, lower in the scale of creation it would appear that the Tree- or Ore-souls, for instance, are supposed, occasionally at least, to assume the shape of some animal or bird.

Thus the soul of Eagle-wood is thought to take the shape of a bird, the soul of Tin-ore that of a buffalo, the Gold-soul that of a deer. The souls of animals are recognised by a natural extension from the theory of human souls; the souls of trees and plants follow in some vague, partial way, and the [ 53 ] souls of inanimate objects expand the general category to its extremest boundary.

To the Malay who has arrived at the idea of a generally animated Nature, but has not yet learned to draw scientific distinctions, there appears nothing remarkable or unnatural in the idea of vegetation-souls, or even in that of mineral-souls—rather would he consider us Europeans illogical and inconsistent were he told that we allowed the possession of souls to one half of the creation and denied it to the other. Side by side with this general conception of an universally animate nature, we find abundant evidences of a special theory of Human Origin which is held to account not only for the larger mammals, but also for the existence of a large number of birds, and even for that of a few reptiles, fishes, trees and plants, but seems to lose its operative force in proportion to its descent in the scale of creation, until in the lowest scale of all, the theory of Human Origin disappears [ 54 ] from sight, and nothing remains but the partial application of a few vague anthropomorphic attributes.

His mother heard the news of his return, and she made ready, roasting a chika monkey and lotong monkey , and went with his father on board their bark canoe to meet their son. The mother turned round once more to look at her son, but the father did not, and by the power of God they were both turned into trees of the species pauh a kind of mango one leaning seawards and the other towards the land. The fruit of the seaward one is sweet, but that of the landward one is bitter.

Notes and Queries , No. Their type approximates to that of the Negritos of the Andaman Islands and the Philippines, but the one referred to in this legend had white blood, which is considered by Malays to be the royal colour. After this God animated the figure of clay and endued it with an intelligent soul, and when He had placed him in paradise, formed Eve out of his left side. Then He took the Spirit of Life to endue this body with vitality, and placed the spirit on the head of the figure.

But the spirit was strong, and the body, being only clay, could not hold it, and was reft in pieces and scattered into the air. Those fragments of the first great Failure are the spirits of earth and sea and air. That man was Adam, and the iron that is in the constitution of his descendants has stood them in good stead.

When they lose it they become of little more account than their prototype the first failure. In Selangor, some of the greater bones, at least, have their own mystic nomenclature, e. In Perak the custom would appear to be less strict. Thus from Malay Sketches p. The words in brackets are mine. Leyden, Mal. Annals , pp. These are H. One of the tombak belonging to H. In the morning he wore red, at mid-day yellow, and in the evening his clothes were green. When he was pointed out to Magat Terawis, it was the morning, and he was dressed in red.

The foregoing superstitious observance is found among more than one Indo-Chinese nation. Two officers stand, all day long, just outside the state-room, holding open black umbrellas with silver fringes, and two others are in the bows with long bamboo poles held close together and erect. There are said to have been other perquisites as well as those mentioned, e.

It is the custom of Malays to discontinue after the death of a king the use of the title which he bore during his life. A new title is invented for the deceased monarch, by which he is ever afterwards known. The various kings of those countries are generally distinguished by some nickname derived from facts in their reign or personal relations, and applied to them after their decease.

If you touch hands with a man who is somewhat your superior in rank, it is proper, in drawing back your hands, to bring them at least as high as your chest; and if the other is decidedly your superior, even as high as your forehead, bending forward somewhat while doing so. In Perak the office of musician used to be an hereditary one, the performers were called Orang Kalau , and a special tax was levied for their support J.

A goat had been killed for the occasion, and the party who were paying the vow brought its flesh with them, together with a great heap of rice stained with saffron turmeric. A banquet followed, in which we all took part. Frazer, op. The idea of long hair is found even in animistic conceptions of natural objects. When worn full length by men it was usually, for convenience, coiled up inside the head-cloth or turban saputangan or tanjak , or was made up into rolls or chignons sanggul dan siput like that of the women.

Indian Arch. Tylor, Prim. All that can be said is that they were most probably seven different manifestations of the same soul. Such might be the Shadow-soul, the Reflection-soul, the Puppet-soul, the Bird-soul? Tylor, op. Green is not a common colour. Blue appears to be rarely used. It is, however, the colour assigned to a fabulous?

Orange jingga is also extremely rare, though it is occasionally used for certain decorative work e. In the inland districts, however, the Pawang is still a power, and is regarded as part of the constituted order of society, without whom no village community would be complete. On one occasion I was nearly called upon to decide whether these adjuncts—which consisted, in this particular case, of a peculiar kind of head-dress—were the personal property of the person then in possession of them who had got them from his father, a deceased Pawang , or were to be regarded as official insignia descending with the office in the event of the natural heir declining to serve!

Fortunately I was spared the difficult task of deciding this delicate point of law, as I managed to persuade the owner to take up the appointment. In all agricultural operations, such as sowing, reaping, irrigation works, and the clearing of jungle for planting, in fishing at sea, in prospecting for minerals, and in cases of sickness, his assistance is invoked. Thus, for instance, it is pantang in some places to work in the rice-field on the 14th and 15th days of the lunar month; and this rule of enforced idleness, being very congenial to the Malay character, is, I believe, pretty strictly observed.

Also the padi must not be threshed by hitting it against the inside of a box, a practice known as banting padi. The same is true of the pantang i. This system of customary prices is probably a very old relic of a time when the idea of asking a neighbour or a member of your own tribe to pay a competition price for an article was regarded as an infringement of communal rights. It applies to a few other articles of local produce 2 besides padi , and I was frequently assured [ 59 ] that the neglect of this wholesome rule was the cause of bad harvests.

I was accordingly pressed to fine transgressors, which would perhaps have been a somewhat difficult thing to do. The fact, however, that in many places these rules are generally observed is a tribute to the influence of the Pawang who lends his sanction to them.

The foregoing description is so precise and clear that I have not much to add to it. There are, however, one or two points which require emphasis. One of these is that the priestly magician stands in certain respects on the same footing as the divine man or king—that is to say, he owns certain insignia which are exactly analogous to the regalia of the latter, and are, as Mr.

He shares, moreover, with the king the right to make use of cloth dyed with the royal colour yellow , and, like the king, too, possesses the right to enforce the use of certain ceremonial words and phrases, in which respect, indeed, his list is longer, if anything, than that of royalty. He also acts as a sort of spirit-medium and gives oracles in trances; possesses considerable political influence; practises very occasional austerities; observes some degree of chastity, and appears quite sincere in his conviction of his own powers.

At least he always has a most plausible excuse ready to account for his [ 60 ] inability to do whatever is required. An aged magician who came from Perak to doctor one of H. Moreover, like members of their profession all the world over, these medicine-men are, perhaps naturally, extremely reticent; it was seldom that they would let their books be seen, much less copied, even for fair payment, and a Pawang once refused to tell me a charm until I had taken my shoes off and was seated with him upon a yellow cloth while he repeated the much-prized formula.

The office of magician is, as has been said, very often hereditary. Fumigate the grave, going three times round it, and call upon the murdered man by name:— [ 61 ]. And I desire to ask for a little magic. You and your companion must now take up a sitting posture, one at the head and the other at the foot of the grave, facing the grave post, and use the canoe-paddles which you have brought.

In a little while the surrounding scenery will change and take upon itself the appearance of the sea, and finally an aged man will appear, to whom you must address the same request as before. But even so, the reverence paid to them and the ceremonies that are performed at them savour a good deal too much of ancestor-worship to be attributable to an orthodox Muhammadan origin.

This place was explained to me to be the kramat of one Nakhoda Hussin, described as a jin of the orthodox variety , who presides over the water, rain, and streams. People occasionally burned incense there to avert drought and get enough water for irrigating their fields. There was another kramat of his lower down the hill, also consisting of rocks, one of which was shaped something like a boat. I was informed that this jin is attended by tigers which guard the hill, and are very jealous of the intrusion of other tigers from the surrounding country.

He is believed to have revealed himself to the original Pawang of the village, the mythical founder of the kampong of Nyalas. In a case like this it seems probable that the name attached to this object of reverence is a later accretion, and that under a thin disguise we have here a relic of the worship of the spirit of rivers and streams, a sort of elemental deity localised in this particular place, and still regarded as a proper object of worship and propitiation, in spite of the theoretically strict monotheism of the Muhammadan creed.

Again, at another place the kramat is nothing but a tree, of somewhat singular shape, having a large swelling some way up the trunk. It was explained to me that this tree was connected in a special way with the prospects of local agriculture, the size of the swelling increasing in good years and diminishing in bad seasons! Hence it was naturally regarded with considerable awe by the purely agricultural population of the neighbourhood.

The most celebrated of the Malacca kramats , the one at Machap, is a representative type of the first class, that in which there really is a grave: it is the one place where a hardened liar respects the sanctity of an oath, and it is occasionally visited in connection with civil cases, when the one party challenges the other to take a particular oath. After explaining the difference between beneficent spirits and the spirits of evil, Mr.

But it is certain that it would have been excessively dangerous for an ordinary layman to do so. A Javanese coolie, on the main road near Ayer Panas, cut down a tree which was known to be occupied by a hantu. He was thereupon seized with what, from the description, appears to have been an epileptic fit, and showed all the traditional symptoms of demoniac [ 65 ] possession.

After which the hantu left him. That tree had to be excluded from the contract. The following description, by Sir W. Maxwell, of a Perak kramat may be taken as fairly typical of the kramat , in which there really is a grave:—. It is situated about half-way between the Larut Residency and the mining village of Kamunting. In the neighbourhood the old durian trees of Java betoken the presence of a Malay population at a date long prior to the advent of the Chinese miner.

She is said to have been an old Achinese woman of good family; of her personal history nothing is known, but her claims to respectability are evinced by the carved head and foot stones of Achinese workmanship which adorn her grave, and her sanctity is proved by the fact that the stones are eight feet apart.

It is a well-known Malay superstition that the stones placed to mark the graves of Saints miraculously increase their relative distance during the lapse of years, and thus bear mute testimony to the holiness of the person whose resting-place they mark. A tree overshadows the grave and is hung with strips of white cloth and other rags panji panji which the devout have put there. The direction of the grave is as nearly as possible due north and south. The stones at its head and foot are of the same size, and in every respect identical one with the other.

They are of sandstone, and are said by the natives to have been brought from Achin. In design and execution they are superior to ordinary Malay art, as will be seen, I think, on reference to the rubbings of the carved surface of one of them, which have been executed for me by the Larut Survey Office, and which I have transmitted to the Society with this paper.

They are in excellent preservation, and the carving is fresh and sharp. Some Malays profess to discover in the three rows of vertical direction on the broadest face of the slabs the Mohammedan attestation of the unity of God La ilaha illa-lla repeated over and over again; but I confess that I have been unable to do so. The offerings at a kramat are generally incense istangi or satangi or benzoin kaminian ; these are burned in little stands made of bamboo rods; one end is stuck in the ground and the other split into four or five, and then opened out and plaited with basket work so as to hold a little earth.

They are called sangka ; a Malay will often vow that if he succeeds in some particular project, or gets out of some difficulty in which he may happen to be placed, he will burn three or more sangka at such and such a kramat. Persons who visit a kramat in times of distress or difficulty, to pray and to vow offerings, in case their prayers are granted, usually leave behind them as tokens of their vows small pieces of white cloth, which are tied to the branches of a tree or to sticks planted in the ground near the sacred spot.

For votary purposes the long-forgotten tomb of Toh Bidan Susu Lanjut enjoys considerable popularity among the Mohammedans of Larut; and the tree which overshadows it has, I am glad to say, been spared the fate which awaited the rest of the jungle which overhung the road. No coolie was bold enough to put an axe to it. George Bellamy, writing in , thus described the kramat at Tanjong Karang in the Kuala Selangor district:— [ 68 ]. It is situated on the extreme point of land at the mouth of the river Selangor, close to where the new lighthouse has been erected.

A magnificent kayu ara a kind of fig-tree forms a prominent feature of the tanjong point or cape , and at the base of this tree, enveloped entirely by its roots, is an oblong-shaped space having the appearance of a Malay grave, with the headstones complete To this sacred spot constant pilgrimages are made by the Malays, and the lower branches of the tree rarely lack those pieces of white and yellow cloth which are always hung up as an indication that some devout person has paid his vows.

The Chinese also have great respect for this kramat , and have erected a sort of sylvan temple at the foot of the tree. When walking along the pantai shore , if you chance to meet a very large tiger let him pass unharmed.

And when you go to see the new lighthouse at Tanjong Kramat, you may perhaps come face to face with a very old man, who sadly shakes his head and disappears. In No. It is by no means necessary to ensure the popularity of a kramat or shrine that the saint to whose memory it is dedicated should be a Malay. The cosmopolitan character of these shrines is attested in the following note which I sent to the Selangor Journal 11 about the shrines in the Ulu Langat Kajang district of Selangor:—.

I have never yet, however, heard of any shrine being dedicated to a Chinaman, and it is probable that this species of canonisation is confined at least in modern times to local celebrities professing the Muhammadan religion, as would certainly be the case of the Malays and Javanese mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, and quite possibly too in the case of the Sakai.

It is true that Chinese often worship at these shrines—just as, on the same principle, they employ Malay magicians in prospecting for tin; but there appear to be certain limits beyond which they [ 70 ] cannot go, as it was related to me when I was living in the neighbourhood, that a Chinaman who had, in the innocence of his heart, offered at a Moslem shrine a piece of the accursed pork , was pounced upon and slain before he reached home by one of the tigers which guarded the shrine. This curious feature is thought by the local Malays at least, to be one of the specially distinctive marks of a rimau kramat , or Ghost-tiger, just as the possession of one tusk that is smaller than the other is the mark of a Ghost-elephant.

Closely connected with the subject of shrines is that of high places, such as those spots where religious penance was traditionally practised. The main divisions of the magico-religious ceremonies of the Malays are prayer, sacrifice, lustration, fasting, divination, and possession. The efficacy of prayer is, however, often supposed to be enhanced by repetition.

The ruder conception that the deity takes and values the offering for itself, gives place, on the one hand, to the idea of mere homage as expressed by a gift, and, on the other, to the negative view that the virtue lies in the worshipper depriving himself of something prized. A general survey of the charms and ceremonies brought together in this volume will, I think, be likely to establish the view that the Malays in accordance with the reported practice of many other races probably commenced with the idea of sacrifice as a simple gift, and therefrom developed first the idea of ceremonial homage, and later the idea of sacrifice as an act of abnegation.

Evidences of the original gift-theory chiefly survive in the language of charms, in which the deity appealed to is repeatedly invited to eat and drink of the offerings placed before him, as a master may be invited to eat by his servants. This homage-theory will, I believe, be found to cover by far the greater bulk of the sacrifices usually offered by Malays, and the idea of abnegation appears to be practically confined to votal ceremonies or vows niat , in which the nature and extent of the offering are not regulated by custom, but depend entirely upon the wealth or caprice of the worshipper, there being merely a tacit understanding that he shall sacrifice something which is of more than nominal value to himself.

Of the manner in which offerings are supposed to be received by the deity to whom they are offered it is difficult to obtain very much evidence. Of the rites performed at shrines, Mr. It should, however, I think, be pointed out that the nasi kunyit yellow rice is, usually at all events, eaten by those who take part in the service.

After the meal the Bilal mosque attendant, who was present with the Malay headman and the local priest of the mosque , returned to the tomb, and making obeisance, recited a Muhammadan prayer, craving permission [ 75 ] to take the cloth back for his own use, which he presently did. These Bilals are needy men and live upon the alms of the devout, so I suppose he thought there was no reason why the saint should not contribute something to his support. The burning of incense is one of the very simplest, and hence commonest, forms of burnt sacrifice.

Zabur 17 Hijau is your name, O Incense,. And serve as a summons to all Spirits, to those which have magic powers, and those which have become Saints of God,. At even and morn, by night and day; [ 76 ]. The direction taken by the fumes of the incense is observed and noted for the purpose of divination; this feature of the rite will be noticed under the heading of Medicine.

Another form of sacrifice consists in the scattering of rice. Of these, the parched rice is generally used for strewing the bottom of the sacrificial tray anchak when the framework has been covered with banana leaves, but the offerings have not yet been deposited within it. The washed and saffron rice are generally used for scattering either over the persons to be benefited by the ceremony, or else upon the ground or house-floor.

The pulut or glutinous rice is the kind of rice generally used for sacrificial banquets, e. Lustration is generally accomplished either by means of fire or of water. The best examples of the former are perhaps the fumigation of infants, and the api saleian or purificatory fire, over which women are half-roasted when a birth has taken place, but these being special and distinctive ceremonies, will be described with others of the same nature in Chapter VI.

One of the forms of lustration by water, however, appears rather to take the place of a sub-rite, forming an integral portion of a large class of ceremonies, such as those relating to Building, Fishing, Agriculture, Marriage, and so forth. Hence it will be necessary to give a general sketch of its leading features in the present context. The composition of the brush, which is considered to be of the highest importance, appears to vary, but only within certain limits.

The leaves of the pulut-pulut the exact identity of which I have not yet ascertained, but which may be the Urena lobata , L. The leaves of the gandarusa Insticia gandarusa , L. So great is its efficacy supposed to be, that people who have to go out when rain is falling and the sun shining simultaneously—a most dangerous time to be abroad, in Malay estimation,—put a sprig of the gandarusa in their belts.

To the above list may be perhaps added the satawar , sitawar or tawar-tawar Costus speciosus , L. Leaves of the foregoing plants and shrubs are made up, as has been said, in small sets or combinations of five, seven, or even perhaps of nine leaves a piece. These combinations are said to differ according to the object to which the rice-water is to be applied. It is extremely unlikely, however, that all magicians should make the same selections even for the same objects—rather would they be likely to make use of such leaves on the list as happen to be most readily available.

Still, however, as the only example of such differentiation which I have yet been able to obtain, I will give the details of three separate and distinctive combinations, which were described to me by a Selangor magician:—.

Further inquiry and the collection of additional material will no doubt help to elucidate the general principles on which such selections are made. Short rhyming charms are very often used as accompaniments of the rite of rice-water, but appear to be seldom if ever repeated aloud. The following is a specimen, and others will be found in the Appendix: 26 —. Fasting, or the performance of religious penance, which is now but seldom practised, would appear to have been only undertaken in former days with a definite object in view, such as the production of the state of mental exaltation which induces ecstatic visions, the acquisition of supernatural powers sakti , and so forth.

The fast always took place, of course, in a solitary spot, and not unfrequently upon the top of some high and solitary hill such as Mount Ophir Gunong Ledang , on the borders of Malacca territory. Frequently, however, much lower hills, or even plains which possessed some remarkable rock or tree, would be selected for the purpose. If it is wished to kill a person, an image of him is made and then destroyed; and it is believed that through a certain physical sympathy between the person and his image, the man feels the injuries done to the image as if they were done to his own body, and that when it is destroyed he must simultaneously perish.

The Pawang class perform magic practices in order to find ore, medicine crops, or ensure good takes of fish, etc. The Bomor usually practise their art for the cure of human disease. Both terms are, however, often used as though they were interchangeable.

Raja Budiman , pt. Blagden in J. Bellamy in Selangor Journal , vol. It is difficult to convey the real idea, as Malays call a man kramat who is able to get whatever he wishes for, who is able to foretell events, and whose presence brings good fortune to all his surroundings. District officers will be proud to know that in this last sense the word is occasionally applied to them. When the name kramat is applied to a place, I understand it to mean a holy place, a place of pilgrimage; but it does not necessarily mean a grave, as many people think.

I can quote the kramat at Batu Ampar, Jugra, and numerous places on river banks where no graves exist, but yet they are called kramats. She is said to appear sometimes in the shape of an old woman with a cat, sometimes as a young and beautiful girl dressed in silk. She can transform her cat into a tiger if people molest her. Wall, Hedychium coronarium. Indeed, it is impossible for any mind that is not thoroughly scientific to cast off entirely the religious forms of thought in which it has grown to maturity.

Hence in every people that has received the impression of foreign beliefs, we find that the latter do not expel and supersede the older religion, but are engrafted on it, blent with it, or overlie it. Observances are more easily abandoned than ideas, and even when all the external forms of the alien faith have been put on, and few vestiges of the indigenous one remain, the latter still retains its vitality in the mind, and powerfully colours or corrupts the former.

The actual religion of [ 84 ] a people is thus of great ethnographic interest, and demands a minute and searching observation. No other facts relating to rude tribes are more difficult of ascertainment, or more often elude inquiry.

Two successive religious changes have taken place among them, and when we have succeeded in identifying the vestiges of Brahmanism which underlie the external forms of the faith of Muhammad, long established in all Malay kingdoms, we are only half-way through our task.

Just as the Buddhists of Ceylon turn in times of sickness and danger, not to the consolations offered by the creed of Buddha, but to the propitiation of the demons feared and reverenced by their early progenitors, and just as the Burmese and Talaings, though Buddhists, retain in full force the whole of the Nat superstition, so among the Malays, in spite of centuries which have passed since the establishment of an alien worship, the Muhammadan peasant may be found invoking the protection of Hindu gods against the spirits of evil with which his primitive faith has peopled all natural objects.

The evidence of folk-lore, taken in conjunction with that supplied by charm-books and romances, goes to show that the greater gods of the Malay Pantheon, though modified in some respects by Malay ideas, were really borrowed Hindu divinities, and that only the lesser gods and spirits are native to the Malay religious system.

Yet each department of nature, however small, has its own particular godling or spirit who requires propitiation, and influences for good or evil every human action. I will first take, in detail, the gods of Hindu origin. Of the greater deities or gods, Batara Guru is unquestionably the greatest. It is Batara Guru who alone has the water of life ayer utama atama jiwa which brings the slaughtered heroes to life.

Wilkinson, in the article from which we have already quoted, deals with another point of interest, the expression sang-yang , or batara , which is prefixed to guru. Thus we find it applied to Shiva and Vishnu, but never to the monkey-god Hanuman, or a deity of secondary importance like Dermadewa. Mousedeer; and Sang Tikus, Mr. Thus the expressions sang-yang and batara are fairly coincident in their application. Occasionally, as is only to be expected, the Malays get mixed in their mythology, and of this Mr.

Such slips are inevitable among an illiterate people, and should always be criticised by comparison with the original Hindu tenets, from which these ideas may be presumed to have proceeded. On this I would only remark that Sambu or Jambu is the first portion of the name almost universally ascribed to the Crocodile-spirit by the Peninsular Malays. The Malay conception of Batara Guru seems to have been that he had both a good and a bad side to his character.

Now Hindu mythology, we are told, knows next to nothing of the sea, and any such attempt as this to define the respective boundaries of sea and land is almost certain to be due to the influence of Malay ideas. Again, the intermediate zone is not necessarily considered less dangerous than that of definitely evil influences.

We thus reach a point of exceptional interest, for hunting, being among the old Hindus one of the seven deadly sins, was regarded as a low pursuit, and one which would never be indulged in by a god. Yet I was repeatedly told when collecting charms about the Spectre Huntsman that he was a god, and, explicitly, that he was Batara Guru. This shows the strength of the Malay influences which had been at work, and which had actually succeeded in corrupting the character, so to speak, of the supreme god of this borrowed Hindu Trinity.

Fishermen and seafarers, on the other hand, obtain many a favour from him, and even hope to make friends with him by means of simple sacrifices and charms. There has, it would appear, been a strong tendency on the part of the Malays to identify these imported spirits with the spirits of their older Hindu religion, but the only Genie who really rises to the level of one of the great Hindu divinities is the Black King of the Genii Sang Gala 16 Raja, or Sa-Raja Jin , who appears at times a manifestation of Shiva Batara Guru, who is confounded with the destructive side of Shiva, i.

And with only a single bone. So far as can be made out from the meagre evidence obtainable, the spirit thus described is identifiable with the Black King of Genii, who dwells in the Heart of the Earth, and whose bride, Sang Gadin or Gading , presented him with seven strapping Black Genii as children. Altogether there are one hundred and ninety of these Black?

The theory already mentioned, viz. The name of his wife is not mentioned, as it is in the case of the Black Genie, but the names of three of his children have been preserved, and they are Tanjak [ 96 ] Malim Kaya, Pari Lang lit. On the whole, I may say that the White Genie is very seldom mentioned in comparison with the Black Genie, and that whereas absolutely no harm, so far as I can find out, is recorded of him, he is, on the other hand, appealed to for protection by his worshippers.

Besides these subdivisions, certain Genii are sometimes specifically connected with special objects or ideas. There can be no doubt that the foregoing are meant for the names of a group of four archangels, the name of Israfel corresponding to Abdiel, who generally occupies the fourth place in our own angelic hierarchy. Their customary duties are apportioned among the four great angels as follows:—. In an invocation addressed to the Sea-spirit, however, we find four more such angels mentioned, all of whom hold similar charges:—.

No doubt the names of many more of the subordinate angels might be collected, as we are repeatedly told that they are forty-four in number. Among the more famous of these I may mention after Muhammad and his immediate compeers the prophet Solomon sometimes considered—no doubt owing to his unrivalled reputation for magical skill—as the king of the Genii, whose assistance the hunter or trapper is continually invoking ; the prophet David, celebrated for the beauty of his voice; and the prophet Joseph, celebrated for the beauty of his countenance.

Khizr is often confounded with Elias. He discovered and drank of the fountain of life whence his connection with water , and will consequently not die till the last trump. Still we find such expressions as Sa-Raja Sang-Raja? Malik King of Kings applied to Batara Guru. He does not, however, differentiate between national customs and beliefs, and those which have come in with the Muhammadan religion. And indeed it is not easy to do so. All these are [ ] firmly believed in by the people. Some of these arts have their professors guru from whom instruction may be got.

Others have their doctors, who can say this is such and such a disease, and this is the remedy for it, and besides these there are all those arts which are able to cause evil to man. When Mr. The Hantu Kubor Grave Demons are the spirits of the dead, who are believed to prey upon the living whenever they get an opportunity.

The Hantu Longgak 58 is continually looking up in [ ] the air. Those who are attacked by him foam at the mouth. Subgolongan ini mencakup usaha yang terpadu antara kegiatan pemanenan kayu dengan batas diameter, pengolahan, pemasaran, penanaman kembali serta pemeliharaan tanaman dari jenis-jenis alami, seperti meranti, kruing, pulai, ramin, kayu besi, kayu hitam, ulin dan sebagainya.

Termasuk juga usaha pengangkutan kayu yang dilakukan oleh pengusaha hutan itu sendiri. Kegiatan ini usaha untuk memanfaatkan kawasan hutan, memanfaatkan jasa lingkungan, memanfaatkan hasil hutan kayu. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pemanfaatan hutan alam melalui kegiatan pemanenan atau penebangan dengan batas diameter, pengayaan, dan pemeliharaan. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha untuk membangun kawasan dalam hutan alam yang memiliki ekosistem penting sehingga dapat dipertahankan fungsi dan keterwakilannya melalui kegiatan pemeliharaan, perlindungan dan pemulihan ekosistem hutan termasuk penanaman, pengayaan, penjarangan, penangkaran satwa, pelepasliaran flora dan fauna untuk mengembalikan unsur hayati flora dan fauna dan unsur non hayati tanah, iklim, dan tofografi pada suatu kawasan kepada jenis yang asli, sehingga tercapai keseimbangan ekosistemnya, serta usaha pemanfaatan kayu hasil restorasi ekosistem yang sudah tercapai keseimbangan ekosistemnya.

Subgolongan ini mencakup pemanfaatan hasil hutan bukan kayu yang meliputi penanaman atau pengayaan, pemeliharaan, pemanenan atau penebangan hasil seperti rotan, getah pinus, daun kayu putih, bambu, damar, gaharu, dan atau hasil hutan bukan kayu lainnya.

Kelompok ini mencakup pemanfaatan hasil hutan bukan kayu yang meliputi penanaman atau pengayaan, pemeliharaan, pemanenan atau penebangan hasil hutan bukan kayu rotan, getah pinus, daun kayu putih, bambu, damar, gaharu, dan lainnya.

Golongan ini mencakup pemotongan kayu hutan untuk industri pengolahan dan penggunaan lain dalam bentuk yang belum diolah. Termasuk pemungutan dan pembuatan kayu bakar dan arang kayu di hutan dengan menggunakan cara tradisional. Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Penanaman pohon cemara, lihat Penanaman pohon, seperti penanaman, penanaman kembali, transplantasi, penjarangan dan konservasi hutan dan lajur pohon, lihat golongan Pemungutan hasil hutan liar selain kayu, lihat Produksi keping kayu dan partikel kayu yang tidak berhubungan dengan penebangan kayu, lihat Produksi arang melalui distilasi penyulingan kayu, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup kegiatan poduksi kayu gelondongan untuk industri pengolahan dan produksi kayu gelondongan digunakan dalam bentuk yang tidak diolah, seperti pit-props, tonggak pagar dan tiang listrik atau telepon.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pemungutan hasil kayu dengan batas diameter tertentu yang terpisah dari usaha pengusahaan kayu. Termasuk kegiatan pengumpulan dan produksi kayu bakar. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha di bidang kehutanan yang tidak tercakup dalam kelompok manapun, seperti produksi arang di hutan dengan cara tradisional.

Golongan ini mencakup pemungutan hasil hutan bukan kayu dan tanaman lain yang tumbuh liar. Termasuk jamur, tanaman biji-bijian, anggrek dan tumbuhan liar sejenis, tanaman obat, lak dan damar serta tanaman lain yang tumbuh liar.

Subgolongan ini mencakup pemungutan hasil hutan bukan kayu dan tanaman lain yang tumbuh liar. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pemungutan tanaman lain yang tumbuh liar, seperti balata dan getah karet, getah pinus, rotan, daun tanaman kayu putih, lak dan damar, kepompong ulat sutera Termasuk juga pemungutan jamur, truffle, berri, kacang, gabus, balsem, vegetable hair, eelgrass, buah dan biji pohon ek, horse chestnuts dan lumut dan tanaman sejenisnya. Termasuk juga pemungutan gaharu, buah-buahan, akar-akaran, daun- daunan yang tumbuh liar.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pemungutan getah tanaman karet dan tanaman penghasil getah lainnya, seperti pemungutan getah tanaman karet hutan, getah perca, jelutung dan kemenyan. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pemungutan hasil bukan kayu yang tidak dicakup dalam s. Termasuk pemungutan hasil hutan bukan kayu seperti gaharu dan sarang burung walet. Golongan ini mencakup kegiatan yang menunjang kehutanan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, dan pemanfaatan jasa yang dihasilkan oleh kawasan hutan seperti perencanaan hutan, penaksiran kayu, pengendalian hama hutan, jasa konsultasi dan manajemen hutan, dan pengangkutan kayu dalam hutan.

Termasuk juga kegiatan reboisasi hutan yang dilakukan atas dasar kontrak. Subgolongan ini mencakup pengerjaan bagian kegiatan kehutanan atas dasar balas jasa atau kontrak. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Kegiatan jasa kehutanan, seperti perencanaan kehutanan, jasa konsultasi manajemen kehutanan atau tataguna lahan, perlindungan hutan dan pelestarian alam, reboisasi dan rehabilitasi, pengevaluasian kayu, pemadaman kebakaran hutan dan pengendalian hama Kegiatan jasa pemanenan kayu, seperti pengangkutan kayu di dalam hutan Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Pengoperasian kebun bibit tanaman hutan, lihat Termasuk didalamnya usaha pemanfaatan jasa penyimpanan dan penyerapan karbon.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha dalam rangka rehabilitasi lahan dan kehutanan sosial baik di dalam maupun kawasan hutan. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha jasa kehutanan dalam rangka penyiapan data dasar seperti inventarisasi hutan, pengukuran dan penataan batas, dan penafsiran citra indra jarak jauh. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha jasa di bidang kehutanan lainnya yang tidak tercakup dalam kelompok s.

Golongan pokok ini mencakup penangkapan dan budidaya ikan, jenis crustacea seperti udang, kepiting mollusca, dan biota air lainnya di laut, air payau dan air tawar. Tidak termasuk pemancingan untuk rekreasi. Golongan ini mencakup kegiatan "penangkapan ikan", yaitu perburuan, penangkapan organisme air liar yang masih hidup terutama semua jenis ikan, mollusca dan crustacea termasuk tumbuhan laut, tumbuhan pesisir atau tumbuhan perairan dalam untuk konsumsi atau tujuan lain yang ditangkap baik menggunakan tangan atau berbagai jenis alat tangkap seperti jaring, dan peralatan pancing lainnya.

Termasuk pula kegiatan kapal yang digunakan baik untuk menangkap ikan maupun pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan penangkapan mollusca dengan alat penangkapan ikan: pancing hooks and lines termasuk pancing cumi, yang menangkap jenis ikan cumi-cumi, sotong, gurita, dll; alat yang dijatuhkan atau ditebarkan falling gear , termasuk Jala jatuh berkapal, yang menangkap jenis ikan cumi-cumi, sotong, gurita, dll; jaring angkat lift nets , termasuk bouke ami, yang menangkap jenis ikan cumi- cumi, dll; penggaruk dredges , yang menangkap jenis kekerangan, seperti remis, simping, kerang darah, kerang hijau dan tiram, di laut, muara sungai, laguna dan tempat lain yang dipengaruhi pasang surut.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan penangkapan ikan dengan alat penangkapan ikan anemon laut, karang laut, terumbu karang, polip, ubur-ubur, dan lainnya dengan alat penangkapan ikan jaring lingkar surrounding nets , termasuk pukat cincin pelagis besar dengan satu kapal; jaring angkat lift nets , termasuk bagan tancap shore-operated stationary lift net ; penggaruk dredges termasuk penggaruk tanpa kapal hand dredge ; alat yang ditebarkan falling gears , termasuk jala tebar; jaring insang gillnets and endtangling nets , termasuk jaring insang berpancang; perangkap traps , termasuk pukat labuh; alat penangkapan ikan lainnya miscellaneous gears , termasuk ladung, seser dll di laut, muara sungai, laguna, dan tempat lain yang dipengaruhi pasang surut.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan penangkapan dan pengumpulan biota laut lainnya seperti cacing laut, siput laut di laut, muara sungai, laguna, dan tempat lain yang dipengaruhi pasang surut dengan alat tangkap penggaruk dredges , baik penggaruk berkapal towed dredge atau penggaruk tanpa kapal hand dredge. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan penangkapan crustacea air tawar, seperti udang grago Athya spp. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan penangkapan mollusca air tawar seperti remis Meretrix spp.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan penangkapan ikan hias di perairan darat seperti di danau, sungai, waduk, rawa, dan genangan air lainnya, seperti ikan pelangi dan botia dengan alat penangkapan ikan lainnya miscellaneous gears termasuk seser, perangkat traps termasuk bubu pot. Subgolongan ini mencakup: Jasa sarana produksi penangkapan ikan di laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa produksi penangkapan ikan di laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa pasca panen penangkapan ikan di laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup: Penyewaan kapal pesiar dengan kru untuk angkutan laut misal untuk pelayaran , lihat Jasa patroli, pemeriksaan, perlindungan penangkapan ikan, lihat Aktivitas memancing untuk olahraga atau rekreasi dan jasa ybdi, lihat , Pengoperasian fasilitas pemancingan untuk olahraga, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha produksi penangkapan ikan dan biota laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak seperti jasa penyediaan logistik kapal, dan lainnya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha pasca panen penangkapan ikan dan biota laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa persiapan lelang, jasa sortasi dan gradasi, jasa uji mutu dan sebagainya. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Jasa sarana produksi penangkapan ikan di perairan darat yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa produksi penangkapan ikan di perairan darat yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa pasca panen penangkapan ikan di perairan darat yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Jasa patroli, pemeriksaan, perlindungan penangkapan ikan, lihat Aktivitas memancing untuk olahraga atau rekreasi dan jasa ybdi, lihat , Pengoperasian fasilitas pemancingan untuk olahraga, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha penyiapan sarana penangkapan ikan air tawar di perairan darat yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa pengolahan lahan, alat tangkap, jasa penyediaan logistik kapal, jasa perbengkelan, jasa perbaikan alat tangkap, dan sebagainya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha produksi penangkapan ikan air tawar di perairan darat yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa perubahan benih, jasa penebaran benih, jasa pengendalian jasad pengganggu, jasa pemantauan dan sebagainya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha pasca panen penangkapan ikan air tawar di perairan darat yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa pemanenan, jasa persiapan lelang, jasa sortasi dan gradasi, jasa uji mutu, jasa pengeringan, jasa pemberian es, jasa pengepakan dan penyimpanan dan sebagainya.

Contoh Mollusca yang masuk dalam kelompok ini: Tridacna spp. Contoh: karang keras Ordo Scleractinia. Contoh Echinodermata yang masuk dalam kelompok ini: Holothoria fuscogilva, Holothuria nobilis, dan Holothuria whitmaei. Golongan ini mencakup kegiatan perikanan budidaya pembudidayaan ikan untuk menghasilkan produk ikan atau biota air seperti ikan bersirip, mollusca, crustacea, tumbuhan air, buaya, aligator dan binatang ampibi dan lainnya dengan menggunakan cara yang dirancang untuk meningkatkan jumlah ikan biota air yang dibutuhkan melebihi kapasitas lingkungan sebagai contoh pengembangbiakan secara alami, pemberian makanan dan menjaga dari pemangsa.

Meliputi termasuk budidaya berbagai biota air laut, payau dan air tawar, serta tempat penetasan telur ikan dan peternakan cacing laut. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Budidaya ikan di air laut termasuk budidaya ikan hias air laut Budidaya tiram dan remis, lobster, udang, anak-anak ikan, dan fingerling Budidaya ganggang laut dan rumput laut lainnya yang dapat dimakan Budidaya crustacea, tiram atau remis, mollusca lain dan binatang air lain di air laut Subgolongan ini juga mencakup : Kegiatan budidaya di air asin dalam tangki atau waduk Pengoperasian penetasan ikan laut Pengoperasian pertanian cacing laut Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Budidaya katak, lihat Pengoperasian fasilitas pemancingan untuk olahraga, lihat Termasuk juga kegiatan transplantasinya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan pemeliharaan dan pembesaran serta pemanenan mollusca di laut, muara sungai, laguna, tempat lain yang dipengaruhi pasang surut dan fasilitas buatan lainnya, seperti kerang darah, kerang hijau, kerang mutiara, dan abalone. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan pemeliharaan dan pembesaran serta pemanenan crustacea di laut, muara sungai, laguna, tempat lain yang dipengaruhi pasang surut dan fasilitas buatan lainnya, seperti lobster, udang barong.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan pemeliharaan dan pembesaran serta pemanenan tumbuhan laut di laut, muara sungai, laguna, tempat lain yang dipengaruhi pasang surut dan fasilitas buatan lainnya, seperti rumput laut makro algae penghasil karaginan, agar dan alginat. Termasuk pembesaran algae untuk menghasilkan bioenergi dan non-pangan lainnya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan budidaya biota air laut lainnya di laut, muara sungai, laguna, tempat lain yang dipengaruhi pasang surut dan fasilitas buatan lainnya.

Subgolongan ini mencakup : Budidaya ikan bersirip di perairan darat termasuk budidaya ikan hias Budidaya crustacea, mollusca dan biota air tawar lainnya di perairan darat Pengoperasian pembenihan ikan air tawar Budidaya katak Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Kegiatan budidaya laut di dalam bak atau laguna, lihat Pengoperasian pemancingan untuk olahraga, lihat Termasuk pembesaran ikan tawar di bak, tong atau drum. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pembesaran ikan bersirip, mollusca, crustacea, dan biota air tawar lainnya di karamba jaring apung dengan menggunakan lahan, perairan dan fasilitas buatan lainnya.

Contohnya nila, patin, ikan mas, bandeng, dan lainnya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pembesaran ikan bersirip, crustacea, mollusca, dan pembesaran biota air tawar lainnya di karamba dengan menggunakan lahan, perairan dan fasilitas buatan lainnya. Contohnya nila, patin, ikan mas. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pembesaran ikan bersirip , crustacea, mollusca, dan biota air tawar lainnya di sawah.

Contohnya udang galah, nila, ikan mas, lele. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pembenihan, pemeliharaan, pembesaran dan pemanenan ikan hias air tawar dengan menggunakan lahan, perairan dan fasilitas buatan lainnya seperti ikan diskus, botia, mas koki, mas koi, arwana, black ghost, cupang, silver dollar, palmas, rainbow, tetra, diamond tetra, barnabus fish dan manfish. Termasuk juga budidaya tanaman hias air tawar, seperti cabomba, egeria densa, cryptocoryne longicauda, anubias.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan pembenihan produksi induk, telur, larva sampai dengan benih siap tebar , ikan bersirip, mollusca, crustacea dan biota air tawar lainnya di air tawar. Contohnya patin, ikan mas, lele, gurame, lobster air tawar, nila, katak, dan buaya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pembesaran ikan bersirip, mollusca, crustacea, dan biota air tawar lainnya di karamba jaring tancap dengan menggunakan lahan, perairan dan fasilitas buatan lainnya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan budidaya biota air tawar di media lainnya, seperti bekas galian tambang dan pasir, saluran irigasi sariban dan lainnya. Contohnya ikan lele, patin, nila dan ikan mas. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Jasa sarana produksi budidaya ikan laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa produksi budidaya ikan laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa pasca panen budidaya ikan laut yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak.

Contohnya KSO kerjasama operasional. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha pasca panen budidaya ikan yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa pemanenan, jasa sortasi dan gradasi, jasa uji mutu dan sebagainya. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Jasa sarana produksi budidaya ikan yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa produksi budidaya ikan yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa pasca panen budidaya ikan yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Budidaya di air asin dalam tangki atau waduk, lihat Pengoperasian fasilitas pemancingan untuk olahraga, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha penyiapan sarana budidaya ikan air tawar yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa penyediaan terpal, jaring, pakan, probiotik, vaksin, kapur, pupuk, pengolahan lahan, pembuatan kolam, karamba jaring apung, jasa penampungan hasil budidaya, dan sebagainya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha produksi budidaya ikan air tawar yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa sortasi, pemberian pakan, jasa pengendalian jasad pengganggu, jasa pemantauan dan sebagainya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha pasca panen budidaya ikan air tawar yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa pemanenan, jasa sortasi dan gradasi, jasa uji mutu, jasa pengeringan, jasa pemberian es, jasa pengepakan dan penyimpanan, dan sebagainya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan pembesaran mollusca air payau dengan menggunakan lahan, perairan dan fasilitas buatan lainnya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan pembesaran crustacea air payau seperti, udang galah, udang windu, udang putih, di air payau dengan menggunakan lahan, perairan dan fasilitas buatan lainnya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan budaidaya biota air payau lainnya dengan menggunakan lahan, perairan dan fasilitas buatan lainnya. Subgolongan ini mencakup: Jasa sarana produksi budidaya ikan di air payau yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa produksi budidaya ikan di air payau yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak Jasa pasca panen budidaya ikan di air payau yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha penyiapan sarana budidaya ikan air payau yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa pembuatan tambak, dan sebagainya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha produksi budidaya ikan air payau yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa penebaran benih, jasa pengendalian jasad pengganggu, jasa pengendalian lingkungan dan penyakit, jasa pemberian pakan, jasa pemantauan dan sebagainya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan usaha pasca panen budidaya ikan air payau yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa pemanenan, jasa sortasi dan gradasi, jasa uji mutu, jasa pengeringan, jasa pemberian es, jasa pengepakan dan penyimpanan, dan sebagainya.

Contoh Crustacea yang masuk dalam kelompok ini: Tachypleus gigas, Tachypleus tridentatus dan Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Contoh Coelenterata yang masuk dalam kelompok ini: Antipatharia spp. Contoh Ceolenterata yang masuk dalam kelompok ini: Holothoria fuscogilva. Contoh Reptilia yang masuk dalam kelompok ini: Amyda cartilaginea, Chitra chitra, dan Carettochelys insculpta. Contoh mamalia yang masuk dalam kelompok ini: lumba-lumba. Kegiatan ini dapat dilakukan dengan metode yang berbeda seperti pertambangan dan penggalian di permukaan tanah atau dibawah tanah, pengoperasian sumur pertambangan, penambangan di dasar laut dan lain-lain.

Kategori ini juga mencakup kegiatan tambahan untuk penyiapan barang tambang dan galian mentah untuk dipasarkan seperti pemecahan, pengasahan, pembersihan, pengeringan, sortasi bijih logam, pencairan gas alam dan aglomerasi bahan bakar padat. Golongan pokok ini mencakup pertambangan batu bara dan lignit melalui pertambangan bawah tanah atau pertambangan terbuka.

Kegiatan ini juga mencakup pekerjaan seperti penggolongan, pembersihan, pemadatan dan langkah-langkah lain yang diperlukan dalam pengangkutan untuk dijual. Proses lainnya seperti pembuatan kokas dari mineral dan jasa pertambangan batu bara dan lignit atau pembuatan briket tidak dicakup dalam golongan pokok ini.

Golongan ini mencakup pertambangan batu bara; pertambangan di permukaan tanah atau bawah tanah dan melalui metode pencairan dan pembersihan, perekatan, pelumatan, pemadatan dan lain-lain untuk menggolongkan dan meningkatkan kualitas atau untuk memudahkan pengangkutan. Kegiatan ini juga mencakup pencarian batu bara dari kumpulan tepung bara. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pertambangan batu bara, seperti pertambangan di permukaan tanah atau bawah tanah, termasuk pertambangan dengan cara pencairan liquefaction Pembersihan, perekatan, penghancuran, dan pemadatan batu bara muda untuk penggolongan, meningkatkan kualitas atau memudahkan pengangkutan dan penyimpanan Pencarian batu bara dari kumpulan tepung bara culm bank Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Pertambangan lignit, lihat Penggalian dan aglomerasi tanah gemuk peat , lihat Pengeboran percobaan batu bara, lihat Jasa penunjang pertambangan batu bara, lihat Tungku kokas untuk memproduksi bahan bakar padat, lihat Industri pengolahan bahan bakar briket batu bara, lihat Pengembangkan atau penyiapan lahan untuk pertambangan batu bara, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha operasi pertambangan, pengeboran berbagai kualitas batu bara seperti antrasit, bituminous dan subbitominous baik pertambangan di permukaan tanah atau bawah tanah, termasuk pertambangan dengan cara pencairan liquefaction.

Termasuk pencarian batu bara dari kumpulan tepung bara culm bank. Golongan ini mencakup pertambangan lignit batu bara muda dengan cara penambangan di permukaan tanah, termasuk pertambangan dengan metode pencairan dan kegiatan lain untuk meningkatkan kualitas dan memudahkan pengangkutan atau penyimpanan. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pertambangan lignit, seperti pertambangan lignit di permukaan tanah atau bawah tanah, termasuk pertambangan dengan cara pencairan liquefaction Pembersihan, perekatan, penghancuran dan pemadatan lignit untuk meningkatkan kualitas dan memudahkan pengangkutan dan penyimpanan Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Pertambangan batu bara, lihat Penggalian tanah gemuk peat , lihat Uji pengeboran batu bara, lihat Jasa penunjang pertambangan lignit, lihat Industri pengolahan bahan bakar briket lignit, lihat Pengembangkan atau penyiapan lahan untuk pertambangan batu bara, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha operasi pertambangan, pengeboran berbagai kualitas lignit, seperti pertambangan lignit di permukaan tanah atau bawah tanah, termasuk pertambangan dengan cara pencairan liquefaction.

Golongan pokok ini mencakup produksi minyak bumi mentah, pertambangan dan pengambilan minyak dari serpihan minyak dan pasir minyak dan produksi gas alam serta pencarian cairan hidrokarbon. Golongan pokok ini juga mencakup kegiatan operasi dan atau pengembangan lokasi penambangan minyak dan gas. Golongan ini mencakup pengambilan minyak bumi mentah dan operasi atau pengembangan lokasi minyak bumi seperti pengeboran, penyelesaian dan pemasangan perlengkapan pada sumur minyak dan penyiapan minyak dari lokasi produksi ke pengapalan.

Golongan ini tidak mencakup kegiatan penyulingan minyak bumi Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pertambangan minyak bumi mentah Pertambangan bituminous atau oil shale serpihan minyak dan pasir aspal Produksi minyak bumi mentah dari serpihan dan pasir bituminous Produksi kondensat minyak bumi dengan kadar karbon tinggi Pemrosesan untuk menghasilkan minyak mentah, seperti penampungan, penyaringan, pengeringan, stabilisasi dan lain-lain Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Jasa penunjang pertambangan minyak dan gas, lihat Jasa eksplorasi minyak dan gas, lihat Industri pengolahan penyulingan minyak bumi, lihat Produksi LPG dari hasil penyulingan minyak bumi, lihat Pengoperasian saluran pipa, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha atau kegiatan pertambangan minyak bumi mentah termasuk usaha pencarian kandungan minyak bumi, pengeboran, penambangan, pemisahan serta penampungan, produksi minyak bumi mentah kondensat, pemrosesan untuk menghasilkan minyak mentah dengan cara penampungan, penyaringan, pengeringan, stabilisasi dan lain- lain.

Hasil pertambangan minyak bumi antara lain minyak mentah atau crude oil dan kondensat. Kelompok ini juga mencakup usaha operasi penambangan pasir bituminous atau oil shale serpihan minyak dan pasir aspal. Kegiatan pertambangan tersebut meliputi penggalian, pengeboran, penghancuran, pencucian, penyaringan dan pencampuran serta penampungan.

Termasuk kegiatan produksi minyak bumi mentah dari serpihan minyak dan pasir bituminous jika terkait dengan pertambangannya. Pengolahan lanjut dari hasil minyak bumi dimasukkan dalam kelompok Golongan ini mencakup produksi gas dan hidrokarbon cair melalui metode pencairan dan pirolisis batu bara di lokasi penambangan.

Golongan ini juga mencakup pengambilan kondensat gas, pemisahan dan pengaliran fraksi hidrokarbon cair dan desulfurisasi gas dan kegiatan pencarian dan pengeboran tenaga panas bumi. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Produksi gas hidrokarbon mentah gas alam Pertambangan kondensat gas embun gas Pengeringan dan pemisahan bagian-bagian fraksi hidrokarbon cair Desulfurisasi gas Pertambangan hidrokarbon cair yang dihasilkan melalui pencairan liquefaction atau pirolisis Kegiatan pencarian dan pengeboran tenaga panas bumi Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Jasa penunjang pertambangan minyak dan gas, lihat Jasa eksplorasi minyak dan gas, lihat Produksi LPG dari hasil penyulingan kembali minyak bumi, lihat Industri gas industri, lihat Pengoperasian saluran pipa, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pencarian kandungan gas alam, pengeboran, penambangan, pemisahan serta penampungan.

Hasil pertambangan gas alam antara lain gas alam. Pencairan gas alam menjadi LNG sampai ke pengapalannya masih termasuk kegiatan pertambangan. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pencarian dan pengeboran tenaga panas bumi termasuk lokasi di kawasan hutan. Termasuk kegiatan lain yang berhubungan dengan pengusahaan tenaga panas bumi sampai ke tempat pemanfaatannya.

Kegiatan pengubahan tenaga panas bumi menjadi tenaga listrik termasuk golongan pokok Golongan pokok ini mencakup pertambangan bijih logam, yang dilakukan melalui penambangan bawah tanah, penambangan terbuka open-cast , dasar laut dan lain-lain. Kegiatan ini juga mencakup peningkatan manfaat seperti penghancuran, pengasahan, pencucian, pengeringan, sintering pemanasan tanpa pelelehan.

Golongan ini mencakup pertambangan pasir besi dan bijih besi dan peningkatan mutu dan proses aglomerasi bijih besi. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan pasir besi. Termasuk kegiatan sortasi, pemisahan, dan pembersihannya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan bijih besi termasuk kegiatan peningkatan mutu dan aglomerasi bijih besi serta konsentratnya. Golongan ini mencakup pertambangan dan pengolahan bijih logam yang tidak mengandung besi, seperti bijih torium dan uranium, alumunium bauksit , tembaga, timah, seng, timah hitam, mangaan, krom, nikel kobalt dan lain-lain.

Tidak termasuk bijih logam mulia. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pertambangan bijih yang mengandung konsentrat uranium dan torium, bijih uranium pitchblende Pengkonsentratan uranium dan torium Produksi yellow cake Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Peningkatan kadar atau mutu bijih uranium dan torium, lihat Produksi logam uranium dari bijih uranium dan torium lainnya, lihat Pengolahan lebih lanjut uranium, seperti peleburan atau penyulingan, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan bijih uranium dan torium.

Termasuk kegiatan pengkonsentratan uranium dan torium dan produksi yellow cake. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pertambangan dan penyiapan bijih logam yang utamanya tidak mengandung logam besi, seperti alumunium bauksit , tembaga, timah putih, timah hitam, seng, mangan, krom, nikel, kobal, molybdenum, tantalum, vanadium dan lain-lain Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Pertambangan dan penyiapan bijih uranium dan torium, lihat Produksi alumunium oksida dan bahan nikel atau tembaga, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan bijih tembaga, yang terdiri dari kalkosit serta batuan berupa campuran monticellit dan skarnyakut.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan bahan galian lainnya yang tidak mengandung bijih besi yang belum termasuk kelompok s. Golongan ini mencakup pertambangan bijih logam mulia, seperti emas, platina, perak dan logam mulia lainnya. Golongan ini juga mencakup proses pemisahan bagian non-logam dari logam mulia.

Subgolongan ini mencakup pertambangan bijih logam mulia seperti emas, platina, perak dan logam mulia lainnya. Subgolongan ini juga mencakup proses pemisahan bagian non-logam dari logam mulia. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan, dan pembersihan bijih logam mulia lainnya, selain bijih logam emas dan perak, seperti bijih platina. Golongan pokok ini mencakup pengambilan mineral dari tambang dan galian, juga pengerukan tanah endapan, penghancuran batu dan pengambilan garam.

Sebagian besar hasil pertambangan dan penggalian mineral ini digunakan pada bidang konstruksi pasir, batu dan lain-lain , industri bahan galian tanah liat, gips, kapur dan lain-lain , industri bahan- bahan kimia dan lain-lain. Golongan pokok ini juga mencakup kegiatan penghancuran, pengasahan, pemotongan, pembersihan, pengeringan, sortasi dan pencampuran bahan-bahan mineral tersebut. Golongan ini mencakup penggalian pemotongan dan penghalusan batu kasar seperti jade, rubi, marmer, granit, batu pasir, batu gamping, penambangan gips, anhidrit, kapur dan dolomit tidak beroksidasi.

Golongan ini juga mencakup pengambilan dan pengerukan pasir industri, pemecahan dan penghancuran batu dan kerikil, penggalian pasir dan pertambangan tanah liat. Golongan ini tidak mencakup pemotongan dan penyelesaian batu di luar penggalian. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Penggalian dan pemotongan batu hias dan batu bangunan seperti batu pualam, granit, batu pasir atau paras dan lain-lain Penggalian, pembersihan dan pemisahan batu kapur Penambangan gips dan anhidrit Penambangan kapur dan uncalcined dolomit Pengambilan dan pengerukan pasir industri, pasir untuk konstruksi dan kerikil Pemecahan dan pemisahan batu dan kerikil Penggalian pasir Penambangan tanah liat, refraktori tanah liat dan kaolin Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Penambangan pasir bituminous, lihat Penambangan mineral bahan kimia dan bahan pupuk, lihat Produksi calcined dolomite, lihat Pemotongan, pembentukan dan penyelesaian batu di luar penggalian, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian batu hias dan batu bangunan seperti batu pualam atau marmer, batu andesit batu gajah, base course , paras, obsidian, dan granit.

Termasuk disini kegiatan pemecahan, pemisahan dan pembersihannya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian batu kapur atau gamping. Termasuk disini kegiatan pemecahan, penghancuran, penyaringan dan penghalusannya.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian, pembersihan dan pemisahan kerikil. Hasil dari penggalian kerikil antara lain batu pasir, bongkah keras dan pasir kerikil. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian, pembersihan dan pemisahan pasir.

Hasil dari penggalian pasir berupa pasir beton, pasir pasang sedikit mengandung tanah , pasir uruk banyak mengandung tanah dan lainnya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian tanah dan tanah liat. Kegiatan pembentukan, penghancuran dan penggilingan tanah dan tanah liat dimasukkan dalam kelompok ini.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian gips. Termasuk disini kegiatan pembersihan, dan penghalusannya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian tras batuan gunung api yang mengalami perubahan kimia karena pelapukan dan kondisi air bawah tanah. Termasuk disini kegiatan pembersihannya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian batu apung jenis batuan yang berwarna terang, mengandung buih yang terbuat dari gelembung berdinding gelas, dan biasanya disebut juga sebagai batuan gelas vulkanik silikat.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian batu, pasir dan tanah liat lainnya, yang tidak terklasifikasikan di kelompok - Kegiatan penggalian yang masuk dalam kelompok ini seperti penggalian diorit, basalt, breksi, dan lainnya. Termasuk disini kegiatan pemecahan, penghancuran, pemisahan, penyaringan, dan penghalusannya. Golongan ini mencakup pertambangan fosfat alam, garam kalsium, belerang murni; pengambilan dan pengolahan pirit dan pyrrhotite, kecuali pembakaran; pertambangan barium karbonat dan barium sulfat alam, borat alam, magnesium sulfat alam; pengambilan dan aglomerasi tanah gemuk peat bakar, pertambangan earth colours semacam pigmen dari mineral , fluorspor mineral yang berpendar dan mineral lain sebagai bahan baku kimia.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan bijih belerang. Termasuk juga kegiatan penghancuran, dan pembersihan terhadap mineral belerang. Pengolahan lanjutan dari mineral belerang dimasukkan dalam kelompok Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan bahan galian fosfat. Termasuk disini kegiatan sortasi, penghancuran, pembersihan dan peningkatan kadar bahan galian fosfat.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan bahan galian nitrat. Termasuk disini kegiatan pembersihan, pemecahan, dan sortasi dengan cara lain terhadap bahan galian nitrat. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan ekstraksi air tanah yang mengandung yodium. Termasuk disini kegiatan distilasi dari ekstraksi mineral tersebut. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan potash dalam bentuk garam, feldpar dan leusit analeum.

Termasuk disini kegiatan penghancuran dan pembersihan terhadap mineral tersebut. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan mineral bahan kimia dan bahan pupuk lainnya yang belum tercakup dalam kelompok s.

Misalnya pertambangan barium sulfat alam dan karbonat barite dan witherit , borat alam, magnesium sulfat alam kiserit , pertambangan earth coulor, flour, bentonite, dolomit, magnesit, phiroplit, tawas, diatomea, dan mineral lain yang utamanya sebagai bahan kimia dan pertambangan guano bahan pupuk dari kotoran burung atau kelelawar.

Termasuk disini kegiatan pembersihan, pemisahan dan sortasi. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Penggalian tanah gemuk peat Aglomerasi tanah gemuk peat Penyaringan tanah gemuk peat untuk meningkatkan kualitas atau memudahkan pengangkutan atau penyimpanan Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Jasa penunjang penggalian tanah gemuk peat , lihat Industri barang dari tanah gemuk peat , lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha operasi ekstraksi dan penggalian tanah gemuk, aglomerasi tanah gemuk dan pencampuran tanah gemuk peat untuk meningkatkan kualitas atau memudahkan pengangkutan atau penyimpanan.

Operasi ekstraksi tersebut meliputi penggalian, penghancuran, pencucian, penyaringan, serta penampungannya. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pengambilan garam dari bawah tanah termasuk dengan pelarutan dan pemompaan Garam yang dihasilkan dengan penguapan air laut atau air garam lainnya Penghancran, pemisahan dan penyulingan garam oleh petani garam Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Pengolahan garam menjadi garam dapur, seperti garam beryodium, lihat Produksi air minum dengan penguapan air garam, lihat Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pertambangan dan penggalian bermacam-macam material dan mineral, seperti batu penggosok, asbes, grafit alam, steatite talc , feldspar, tepung fosil siliceous; aspal alam, batu beraspal dan bitumen padat alam; dan batu permata, kuarsa, mika dan lain-lain.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan aspal alam, batu beraspal dan bitumen padat alam. Termasuk disini kegiatan pemisahan dan penuangan terhadap mineral tersebut. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha penggalian asbes dalam bentuk serabut maupun tidak. Termasuk disini kegiatan pembersihan dan pemisahannya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pertambangan dan penggalian lainnya yang belum termasuk dalam golongan manapun. Pertambangan dan penggalian ini antara lain mika, leusit, yarosit, zeolit, batu penggosok, grafit alam, steatite talc , tepung fosil siliceous, oker, toseki dan mineral logam tanah jarang lainnya.

Golongan pokok ini mencakup jasa penunjang yang dikhususkan untuk pertambangan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak. Golongan pokok ini mencakup jasa eksplorasi dengan cara pencarian tradisional, seperti pengambilan contoh bijih logam dan melakukan observasi geologi dengan cara pengeboran, pengeboran percobaan atau pengeboran ulang sumur minyak, mineral logam dan bukan logam.

Jasa khusus lainnya mencakup pembangunan fondasi sumur minyak dan gas, penyemenan pinggiran sumur minyak dan gas, pembersihan, penimbaan dan pengepelan sumur minyak dan gas, pemompaan dan pengeringan tambang, jasa pemindahan di pertambangan dan lain-lain. Golongan ini mencakup kegiatan jasa pertambangan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak pada pengambilan minyak dan gas.

Golongan ini mencakup jasa eksplorasi yang berhubungan dengan pengambilan minyak bumi dan gas alam, pengeboran dan pengeboran ulang secara langsung, pemasangan alat pemboran minyak di lokasi pertambangan, penyemenan, perbaikan dan pembongkaran pinggiran sumur minyak dan gas, pemompaan sumur, penyumbatan dan penutupan sumur, perubahan menjadi gas kembali dan pencairan gas alam untuk kemudahan pengangkutan yang dilakukan di lokasi pertambangan.

Golongan ini juga mencakup jasa pemompaan dan penyaluran pada pengeboran percobaan dan jasa pemadam kebakaran di ladang atau sumur minyak dan gas bumi. Subgolongan ini mencakup kegiatan jasa pengambilan minyak dan gas atas dasar balas jasa atau kontrak. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Jasa eksplorasi dalam hubungannya dengan pengambilan minyak atau gas dengan cara tradisional, contohnya membuat observasi geologi pada tambang berprospek Pengeboran dan pengeboran ulang; pemasangan alat pengeboran di lokasi pertambangan; perbaikan dan pembongkaran penyemenan sumur minyak dan sumur gas; pembuatan saluran sumur; penyumbatan dan penutupan sumur Pencairan dan regasifikasi gas alami untuk kebutuhan transportasi, dikerjakan di lokasi pertambangan Jasa pemompaan dan penyaluran tambang atas dasar balas jasa atau kontrak Pengeboran percobaan dalam hubungannya dengan penyulingan minyak bumi dan gas Jasa pemadam kebakaran ladang minyak dan gas Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Jasa operator pada ladang minyak bumi dan gas, lihat , Jasa perbaikan khusus mesin pertambangan, lihat Pencairan dan regasifikasi gas alam untuk tujuan pengangkutan, dikerjakan di luar lokasi pertambangan, lihat Survei geofisika, geologi dan seismik, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup kegiatan jasa yang berkaitan dengan pertambangan minyak dan gas bumi yang dilakukan atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, seperti jasa eksplorasi pengambilan minyak atau gas dengan cara tradisional yaitu membuat observasi geologi, pemasangan alat pengeboran, perbaikan dan pembongkaran penyemenan sumur minyak dan sumur gas, pembuatan saluran sumur, pemompaan sumur produksi, penyumbatan dan penutupan sumur produksi, pengujian produksi, dismantling, pencairan dan regasifikasi gas alam untuk kebutuhan transportasi di lokasi pertambangan, pengeboran percobaan dalam rangka penyulingan minyak bumi dan gas alam dan jasa pemadam kebakaran ladang minyak bumi dan gas alam.

Golongan ini mencakup jasa penunjang atas dasar balas jasa fee atau kontrak, yang dibutuhkan kegiatan pertambangan dan penggalian selain minyak bumi dan gas alam. Golongan ini juga mencakup jasa eksplorasi, jasa pemompaan dan pengeringan dan pengeboran percobaan dan pengeboran sumur atau ladang percobaan. Subgolongan ini mencakup jasa penunjang atas dasar balas jasa atau kontrak, yang dibutuhkan dalam kegiatan pertambangan golongan pokok 05, 07, dan Subgolongan ini mencakup : Jasa eksplorasi, misalnya dengan cara tradisional seperti mengambil contoh bijih dan membuat observasi geologi pada tambang berprospek Jasa pemompaan dan pengeringan hasil tambang Percobaan penggalian dan pengeboran sumur atau ladang tambang Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Pengoperasian tambang atau penggalian atas dasar balas jasa atau kontrak, lihat golongan pokok 05,07, dan 08 Jasa reparasi khusus mesin pertambangan, lihat Jasa survei geofisika atas dasar balas jasa atau kontrak, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup jasa penunjang atas dasar balas jasa atau kontrak, yang dibutuhkan dalam kegiatan pertambangan golongan pokok 05, 07, dan 08, seperti jasa eksplorasi misalnya dengan cara tradisional seperti mengambil contoh bijih dan membuat observasi geologi, jasa pemompaan dan penyaluran hasil tambang dan jasa percobaan penggalian dan pengeboran ladang atau sumur tambang.

Bahan baku industri pengolahan berasal dari produk pertanian, kehutanan, perikanan, pertambangan atau penggalian seperti produk dari kegiatan industri pengolahan lainnya. Perubahan, pembaharuan atau rekonstruksi yang pokok dari barang secara umum diperlakukan sebagai industri pengolahan. Unit industri pengolahan digambarkan sebagai pabrik, mesin atau peralatan yang khusus digerakkan dengan mesin dan tangan.

Termasuk kategori industri pengolahan di sini adalah unit yang mengubah bahan menjadi produk baru dengan menggunakan tangan, kegiatan maklon atau kegiatan penjualan produk yang dibuat di tempat yang sama di mana produk tersebut dijual dan unit yang melakukan pengolahan bahan-bahan dari pihak lain atas dasar kontrak.

Golongan pokok ini mencakup pengolahan produk pertanian, kehutanan dan perikanan menjadi makanan dan juga mencakup produk setengah jadi yang tidak secara langsung menjadi produk makanan tetapi nilainya dapat lebih besar atau lebih kecil. Golongan pokok ini terdiri dari kegiatan yang berhubungan dengan berbagai macam produk makanan. Produksi dapat dilakukan atas usaha sendiri atau oleh pihak lain. Beberapa kegiatan dianggap sebagai industri pengolahan walaupun kegiatannya adalah perdagangan eceran dari produk yang dihasilkan sendiri.

Tetapi ketika pengolahan yang dilakukan adalah minimal dan tidak menyebabkan suatu perubahan nyata, unit tersebut diklasifikasikan dalam perdagangan besar dan eceran Kategori G. Golongan ini mencakup operasi rumah potong hewan yang berkaitan dengan pemotongan hewan, pengulitan atau pengemasan daging. Golongan ini juga mencakup produksi hasil sampingan binatang, minyak babi dan lemak lainnya yang dapat dimakan yang berasal dari binatang, wol, bulu binatang termasuk bulu burung.

Golongan ini tidak mencakup kegiatan pengolahan daging menjadi makanan, perdagangan besar dan pengemasan daging. Kelompok ini mencakup kegiatan operasional rumah potong hewan yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan pemotongan, pengulitan, pembersihan dan pengepakan daging, seperti daging sapi, babi, biri-biri, kelinci, domba, unta dan daging segar lainnya bukan unggas, kegiatan pengurusan hasil sampingan, seperti produksi kulit dan jangat dari tempat pemotongan hewan termasuk fellmongery, penjemuran tulang, pengolahan sisaan atau kotoran hewan, penyortiran wol dan bulu dan pembersihan lemak.

Termasuk kegiatan pemotongan dan pengolahan paus di darat atau di kapal khusus. Pemotongan yang dilakukan oleh pedagang dimasukkan dalam golongan , dan Subgolongan ini mencakup : Kegiatan operasional rumah potong unggas dan pengepakan daging unggas Pemrosesan sisa atau isi perut unggas offal Produksi bulu unggas Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Industri pengolahan daging olahan yang didinginkan dan masakan unggas, lihat Industri pengolahan sup yang berisi daging, lihat Perdagangan besar daging, lihat Pengemasan daging, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup kegiatan operasional rumah potong unggas dan pengepakan daging unggas, termasuk kegiatan pengurusan hasil sampingan, seperti pemrosesan sisa atau kotoran unggas, pementangan kulit, penyortiran bulu dan pembersihan lemak.

Subgolongan ini mencakup : Produksi daging beku dalam bentuk carcase Produksi daging beku yang telah dipotong Produksi daging beku dalam porsi tersendiri Produksi daging yang dikeringkan, daging yang diasinkan atau daging yang diasapkan Produksi produk-produk daging, seperti sosis, salami, puding, "andovillettes", saveloy, bologna, patc, rillet, daging ham Subgolongan ini juga mencakup : Pengolahan daging ikan paus di darat atau di kapal khusus Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Industri pengolahan daging olahan yang didinginkan dan masakan unggas, lihat Industri pengolahan sup yang berisi daging, lihat Perdagangan besar daging, lihat Pengemasan daging, lihat Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengolahan dan pengawetan produk daging dan daging unggas dengan cara pengalengan, pengasapan, penggaraman, pembekuan, pemanisan, pengiradiasian dengan iradiator dan sebagainya.

Kegiatannya mencakup produksi daging beku dalam bentuk carcase, produksi daging beku yang telah dipotong, produksi daging beku dalam porsi tersendiri, produksi daging yang dikeringkan, daging yang diasinkan atau daging yang diasapkan, produksi produk-produk daging, seperti sosis, salami, puding, "andovillettes", saveloy, bologna, patc, rillet, dan daging ham.

Termasuk kegiatan pengolahan daging paus di darat atau di kapal khusus. Golongan ini mencakup pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan dengan menggunakan bermacam cara. Golongan ini juga mencakup produksi tepung ikan baik untuk konsumsi manusia atau bukan, makanan binatang, pengolahan ganggang laut dan kegiatan kapal yang hanya berkaitan dengan pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan.

Golongan ini tidak mencakup pengolahan makanan dari ikan, pengolahan paus di daratan atau kapal khusus, produksi minyak dan lemak yang bahan bakunya berasal dari laut. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan, seperti pembekuan, pengeringan, pengasapan, pengasinan, pencelupan ke dalam air asin Produksi hasil ikan, seperti ikan yang dimasak, ikan fillet, telur ikan, caviar, pengganti caviar Kegiatan kapal yang digunakan hanya untuk pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan dan biota air lainnya dalam hal ini tidak termasuk pengalengannya Produksi tepung ikan untuk konsumsi manusia dan makanan hewan Produksi daging dan bagian dari ikan bukan untuk konsumsi manusia.

Termasuk juga ikan utuh maupun dipotong fillet, loin, saku, steak, chunk, brown meat yang dibekukan. Kegiatan ini tidak termasuk usaha pendinginan ikan dengan es yang dimaksud untuk mempertahankan kesegaran ikan tersebut Termasuk industri daging lumat yang dicampur bahan tambahan melalui proses pemasakan atau tidak dimasak kemudian dibekukan. Contoh berbasis daging lumatan dan surimi: mata goyang, kurisi, dll. Berbasis surimi: baso, nuget, otak-otak, kamaboko, sosis, pempek, siomay, dimsum, chikuwa, imitation crab.

Termasuk kegiatan kapal yang digunakan hanya untuk pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan dan biota air lainnya dalam hal ini tidak termasuk pengalengannya , produksi tepung ikan untuk konsumsi manusia dan makanan hewan dan produksi daging dan bagian dari ikan bukan untuk konsumsi manusia, konsentrat tepung ikan. Termasuk dalam kelompok ini adalah industri pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan dengan menggunakan radiasi dengan iradiator.

Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pengolahan dan pengawetan ikan, mollusca, crustacea dan biota air lainnya dalam kaleng pengalengan Kegiatan kapal yang digunakan hanya untuk pemrosesan dan pengawetan ikan dan biota air lainnya dalam hal ini pengalengannya. Kegiatan kapal pengolah ikan yang hanya melakukan pengolahan dan pengawetan dalam kaleng tanpa melakukan kegiatan penangkapan termasuk dalam kelompok ini.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengolahan dan pengawetan udang melalui proses pengalengan udang dalam kaleng. Kegiatan kapal pengolah udang yang hanya melakukan pengolahan dan pengawetan dalam kaleng tanpa melakukan kegiatan penangkapan termasuk dalam kelompok ini. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pengolahan dan pengawetan crustacea, dan mollusca, seperti pembekuan, pengeringan, pengasapan, pengasinan, pencelupan ke dalam air asin, pengalengan dan lain-lain Produksi produk crustacea, mollusca, seperti dimasak, fillet, telur Produksi tepung biota air lainnya untuk konsumsi manusia atau makanan hewan Produksi daging dan bagian biota air lainnya bukan untuk konsumsi manusia Kegiatan kapal yang digunakan hanya untuk pemrosesan dan pengawetan biota air lainnya Pengolahan rumput laut Subgolongan ini tidak mencakup : Pengolahan paus di darat atau di kapal khusus, lihat Kegiatan kapal yang digunakan hanya untuk pemrosesan dan pengawetan biota air lainnya, lihat Produksi minyak dan lemak dari material laut, lihat Industri pengolahan masakan ikan beku, lihat Industri soup ikan, lihat Kegiatan ini tidak termasuk usaha pendinginan crustacea, mollusca dan biota air lainnya dengan es yang dimaksud untuk mempertahankan kesegarannya Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengolahan dan pengawetan crustacea, mollusca, echinodermata dan biota perairan lainnya melalui proses pemindangan.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengolahan rumput laut menjadi rumput laut kering dan olahan alkali treated caragenan chips , gelatin, agar-agar, karagenan dan lainnya. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengolahan dan pengawetan crustacea, mollusca, echinodermata dan biota perairan lainnya dengan cara selain yang tercakup dalam kelompok s. Termasuk dalam kelompok ini adalah industri pengolahan dan pengawetan untuk biota air lainnya dengan menggunakan radiasi dengan iradiator.

Golongan ini mencakup pembuatan makanan yang utamanya terdiri dari sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan, dengan menggunakan berbagai macam cara pengolahan dan pengawetan serta mencakup produk sayuran dan buah-buahan. Golongan ini juga mencakup pembuatan makanan siap saji yang tidak tahan lama yang berasal dari sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan, seperti salad, sayuran yang sudah dipotong-potong atau dikupas, tahu; industri pengupasan kentang, pengolahan lain dari kentang termasuk makanan dan tepung kentang, pemanggangan dan pengolahan makanan dari kacang dan pasta.

Golongan ini tidak mencakup industri pengolahan makanan atau tepung dari sayuran polong, pengolahan makanan dari sayuran dan sari buatan dan pengawetan buah dan kacang-kacangan dengan gula lihat Subgolongan ini mencakup : Industri makanan yang utamanya terdiri dari buah atau sayur, kecuali makanan cepat saji yang dibekukan atau dalam kaleng Industri pengolahan dan pengawetan kentang, meliputi industri bubur kentang yang dikeringkan, industri pengolahan kentang beku, industri makanan kecil dari kentang, industri kentang garing segar dan kering dan industri tepung kentang Pengawetan buah, kacang atau sayuran, seperti pendinginan, pengeringan, pencelupan ke minyak atau cuka dan lain-lain Industri produk makanan dari buah atau sayuran -Industri selai, marmalad selai jeruk dan jelly makan Pemanggangan kacang Industri makanan dan pasta dari kacang.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengawetan buah-buahan dan sayuran dengan proses pengasinan, baik dalam bentuk kemasan ataupun tidak, seperti asinan kedondong, asinan wortel. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengawetan buah-buahan dan sayuran dengan proses pelumatan, baik dalam bentuk kemasan ataupun tidak, seperti selai mangga, jelly murbai, dan cabe giling. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengawetan buah-buahan dan sayuran dengan cara pengeringan, baik dalam bentuk kemasan ataupun tidak, seperti kismis anggur , bawang merah, bawang putih, cabe kering, rebung kering dan jamur kering.

Termasuk Industri keripik dari buah dan sayuran. Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengawetan buah-buahan dan sayuran dengan proses pembekuan, seperti buah-buahan beku dan sayur-sayuran beku. Subgolongan ini mencakup : Pengolahan dan pengawetan buah-buahan, kacang atau sayuran dalam kaleng.

Kelompok ini mencakup usaha pengolahan dan pengawetan buah-buahan dan sayuran melalui proses pengalengan, seperti nanas dalam kaleng, rambutan dalam kaleng, kacang dalam kaleng dan wortel dalam kaleng. Yang dimaksud pengalengan di sini merupakan proses pengawetan dan bukan hanya pengemasan.

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