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Akhtar, F. Predictors of investment intention in Indian stock markets: extending the theory of planned behaviour. Bank Mark. Almenberg, J. Gender, stock market participation and financial literacy. Anderson, J. Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Aren, S. The moderation of financial literacy on the relationship between individual factors and risky investment intention. Arrondel, L.

Stockholding in France: the role of financial literacy and information. Arts, L. Asebedo, S. Market volatility and financial satisfaction: the role of financial self-efficacy. Finance 20, 42— Aydemir, S. Do the effects of individual factors on financial risk-taking behaviour diversify with financial literacy? Kybernetes 46, — Aydin, A.

An investigation of financial literacy, money ethics and time preferences among college students: a structural equation model. Bank Market. Bagozzi, R. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Representation of measurement error in marketing variables: review of approaches and extension to three-facet designs. Balloch, A. Stock market literacy, trust, and participation. Finance 19, — Bamforth, J. Bandura, A. Social cognitive theory of self-regulation.

Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Barasinska, N. Individual risk attitudes and the composition of financial portfolios: evidence from German household portfolios. Finance 52, 1— Barber, B. Constantinides, M. Harris, and R. Stulz Amsterdam: Elsevier , Vol. Baron, R. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Barsky, R. Preference parameters and behavioural heterogeneity: an experimental approach in the health and retirement study.

Bayer, P. The effects of financial education in the workplace: evidence from a survey of employers. Belsky, G. Bonaparte, Y. Income hedging and portfolio decisions. Finance Econ. Political activism, information costs, and stock market participation. Brown, J. Neighbors matter: causal community effects and stock market participation.

Finance 63, — Brown, T. Calvet, L. Financial innovation and stock market participation. Twin picks: disentangling the determinants of risk-taking in household portfolios. Finance 69, — Campbell, J. Household finance. Finance 61, — Canova, L. The hierarchical structure of saving motives. Chang, S. From the editors: common method variance in international business research. Chang, Y. Consumer credit search behaviour. Home Econ. Chen, H. An analysis of personal financial literacy among college students.

Financial Serv. Cheng, Y. Sustainability Chin, W. Advancing the theory of adaptive structuration: the development of a scale to measure faithfulness of appropriation. Christelis, D. Cognitive abilities and portfolio choice. Clark-Murphy, M. What individual investors value: some Australian evidence. Cocco, J. Consumption and portfolio choice over the life cycle. Financial Stud. Cole, S. Conlin, A. Personality traits and stock market participation.

Finance 33, 34— Dam, R. Role of an attitude and financial literacy in stock market participation. IT Eng. Daniel, K. Investor psychology in capital markets: evidence and policy implications. Deng, J. Financial literacy, housing value and household financial market participation: evidence from urban China. China Econ. Dietz, B. Does financial self-efficacy explain gender differences in retirement saving strategies? Women Aging 15, 83— Dimmock, S.

Loss-aversion and household portfolio choice. Finance 17, — Dowling, N. Financial management practices and money attitudes as determinants of financial problems and dissatisfaction in young male Australian workers. Financial Counsel. Faison, A. Falahati, L. Gender differences in financial well-being, financial socialization and financial knowledge among college students.

Life Sci. Acta 8, — Farrell, L. Fessler, P. Financial knowledge, attitude and behaviour: evidence from the Austrian survey of financial literacy. Empirica doi: Fox, J. Building the case for financial education. Affairs 39, — Xiao Cham: Springer , 47— Furnham, A. Many sides of the coin: the psychology of money usage. Gambetti, E. The effect of anger and anxiety traits on investment decisions. Gao, M. Income and social communication: the demographics of stock market participation.

World Econ. Georgarakos, D. Trust, sociability, and stock market participation. Finance 15, — Giannetti, M. Corporate scandals and household stock market participation. Finance 71, — Grant, P. Defeatist beliefs as a mediator of cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and functioning in schizophrenia. Grinblatt, M. IQ and stock market participation. Finance 66, — Measures of individual risk attitudes and portfolio choice: evidence from pension participants. Hadi, F.

Effect of emotional intelligence on investment decision making with a moderating role of financial literacy. China USA Bus. Hair, J. Black , Multivariate Data Analysis. Haliassos, M. Why do so few hold stocks? Preferences and beliefs about financial risk taking mediate the association between anterior insula activation and self-reported real-life stock trading.

Hayat, A. Impact of behavioural biases on investment decision; moderating role of financial literacy. Role Financial Liter. Heaton, J. Portfolio choice in the presence of background risk. Hilton, D. The psychology of financial decision-making: applications to trading, dealing, and investment analysis. Financial Mark. Hong, H.

Social interaction and stock-market participation. Finance 59, — Hoyle, R. Formulating clinical research hypotheses as structural equation models: a conceptual overview. Hu, L. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Hurd, M. Stock market expectations of Dutch households. Kaustia, M. Political preferences and stock market participation. Keller, C. Investing in stocks: the influence of financial risk attitude and values-related money and stock market attitudes.

Money attitude typology and stock investment. Finance 7, 88— Kengatharan, L. The influence of behavioural factors in making investment decisions and performance: study on investors of Colombo Stock Exchange, Sri Lanka. Asian J. Finance Acc. Kline, R. Klontz, B. Money beliefs and financial behaviours: development of the klontz money script inventory. Financial Ther. Financial Plan. Korniotis, G. Do older investors make better investment decisions?

Kumar, A. Religious beliefs, gambling attitudes, and financial market outcomes. Financial Econ. Lapp, W. Li, G. Information sharing and stock market participation: evidence from extended families. Investor education and IPO participation. Finance Trade 55, — Lim, H. Financial stress, self-efficacy, and financial help-seeking behaviour of college students. Lown, J.

Development and validation of a financial self-efficacy scale. Luotonen, N. Helsinki: Aalto University. Lusardi, A. Planning and financial literacy: how do women fare? Financial literacy among the young. Affairs 44, — MacCallum, R. Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling.

Methods Malmendier, U. Depression babies: do macroeconomic experiences affect risk taking? McAvay, G. A longitudinal study of change in domain-specific self-efficacy among older adults. B Psychol. Medina, J. Comparison of Mexican-American and Anglo-American attitudes toward money. Affairs 30, — Montford, W. How gender and financial self-efficacy influence investment risk taking.

Consumer Stud. Morrin, M. Plan format and participation in k plans: the moderating role of investor knowledge. Public Pol. Niu, G. Number of brothers, risk sharing, and stock market participation. Finance How riskily do I invest? The role of risk attitudes, risk perceptions, and overconfidence.

Noussair, C. Higher order risk attitudes, demographics, and financial decisions. Willingness to trial functional foods and vitamin supplements: the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and dread of risks. Food Q. Parrotta, J. The impact of financial attitudes and knowledge on financial management and satisfaction of recently married individuals.

Perry, V. Who is in control? The role of self-perception, knowledge, and income in explaining consumer financial behaviour. Phan, T. Segmentation of financial clients by attitudes and behaviour: : a comparison between Switzerland and Vietnam. Podsakoff, P. Self-reports in organizational research: problems and prospects.

Ponchio, M. Personal factors as antecedents of perceived financial well-being: evidence from Brazil. Qamar, M. How knowledge and financial self-efficacy moderate the relationship between money attitudes and personal financial management behaviour. Online J. Rao, Y. Happiness and stock-market participation: empirical evidence from China.

Happiness Stud. Reilly, F. Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Rha, J. The effect of self-control mechanisms on household saving behaviour. Riitsalu, L. Subjective financial knowledge, prudent behaviour and income: The predictors of financial well-being in Estonia.

Roberts, J. Money attitudes, credit card use, and compulsive buying among American college students. Affairs 35, — Rose, G. Money meanings among French and American adolescents. Rothwell, D. Building financial knowledge is not enough: financial self-efficacy as a mediator in the financial capability of low-income families. Saurabh, K. Role of financial risk attitude and financial behaviour as mediators in financial satisfaction: empirical evidence from India.

Schmidt, N. What drives investments into mutual funds? Paper Presented at the Conference Proceeding , Stuttgart. Seasholes, M. Individual investors and local bias. Finance 65, — Shevlin, M. Effects of sample size, model specification and factor loadings on the GFI in confirmatory factor analysis.

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Does financial literacy moderate the relationship among demographic characteristics and financial risk tolerance? Evidence from Egypt. Finance J. Sivaramakrishnan, S. Attitudinal factors, financial literacy, and stock market participation. Sutter, M. Tang, T. Effects of personal values, perceived surveillance, and task labels on task preference: the ideology of turning play into work.

The meaning of money revisited. Theory of monetary intelligence: money attitudes—religious values, making money, making ethical decisions, and making the grade. Ethics , — Attitudes toward money as related to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, stress and work-related attitudes. Tigges, P. Risk behaviour of East and West Germans in handling personal finances. Tversky, A.

The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science , — Van Rooij, M. Financial literacy and stock market participation. Financial literacy, retirement planning and household wealth. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Wang, C. Customer participation and the roles of self-efficacy and adviser-efficacy.

Wanyana, B. Risk attitudes and risky behaviour. Stock-Market Psychology. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Watson, J. The relationship of materialism to spending tendencies, saving, and debt. Weisfeld-Spolter, S. Integrating affect, cognition, and culture in Hispanic financial planning.

Therefore, the data were valid for the analysis purpose and met the assumption of normality. The demographics presented in Table 5 showed that the majority of investors who participated in this study were male, i. The number of investors who participated was in which 64 The majority of investors who participated in this research were between the ages of 31— Most of the investors were from urban backgrounds , Further, Forty-one investors The monthly income of Structural equation modeling SEM was applied using AMOS 26, and the effect of predictor, moderator, and mediator on the dependent variable was analyzed.

Structural equation modeling SEM is useful when there are higher numbers of variables in the model, and it includes latent variables into the study and also calculates the measurement error Hair et al. Confirmatory factor analysis CFA was applied to conform to the standards of convergent validity and discriminant validity of the constructs. Further, for testing the goodness of fit statistics model fit indices were chosen. The adjusted goodness of fit index AGFI value was 0.

The values of all these fitness indices was higher than 0. Further, the value of R 2 was 0. Table 6 shows the results of CFA and reliability analysis. To validate the convergent validity, the value of the AVE should be greater than 0. For achieving the discriminant validity, the square root of the AVE was taken and placed in the diagonal to compare with the Pearson correlations of the variables and the correlations were less than 0.

Therefore, all the variables were fine for convergent and discriminant validity. Construct reliability was measured through composite reliability which should be greater than 0. For discriminant validity, the square root of the AVE should be higher than the correlations of each construct Chin et al.

Therefore, Table 7 validates discriminant validity. After ensuring the validity and reliability of the variables, the established relationships in the conceptual framework were tested Figure 1. In the conceptual framework, the construct of money attitudes was a second-order construct and consisted of four dimensions, i.

First of all, through these four dimensions, the second-order construct money attitudes was measured, and then the impact of money attitudes on stock market participation was analyzed. The modification indices were also analyzed for improving model fitness Anderson and Gerbing, Most commonly used fit indices were used for the goodness of fit statistics Table 8. Figure 2 shows the structural model using AMOS Therefore, this research shows the significance of money attitudes of investors in predicting stock market participation which means that the investors are more concerned about their money attitudes while deciding whether to participate in the stock market or not.

The moderation was tested in AMOS 26 by constructing a structured diagram. First of all, the independent variable money attitude and two moderating variables, i. After computing the interaction term, it was entered into the model with the independent and dependent variables Figure 2. The moderation model having a standardized effect of the interaction term, i.

It shows that higher financial knowledge strengthens this relationship, and more financially literate investors have greater stock market participation. Further, the standardized effect of the interaction term, i. This finding has indicated that individuals with substantial control over their financial abilities are more likely to invest in the stock market. Therefore, financial knowledge and financial self-efficacy both strengthen the positive relationship between money attitudes and stock market participation in investors Figure 2.

Consequently, the hypotheses H 2 and H 3 were supported. For testing the mediating role of risk attitudes, two approaches were used, i. First of all, the direct path between money attitudes and stock market participation was drawn, and the relationship between the predictor and the dependent variable was tested. After this, an indirect path was drawn as money attitudes-risk attitudes-stock market participation, and the mediating role of risk attitudes was analyzed.

Thus, risk attitudes partially mediate the relationship between money attitudes and stock market participation. This finding indicates that the individuals who are high risk-takers have a higher probability of participating in the stock market as supported by Akhtar and Das Hence hypothesis H 4 was also supported. Investor groups having distinct money attitude types that invest in different financial assets Wood and Zaichkowsky, Further, findings have shown that women participate less in the stock market as compared to men as supported by Van Rooij et al.

Following past literature, financial knowledge has been found to have a significant influence on stock market participation decisions of investors Van Rooij et al. This shows that more financially literate investors have greater stock market participation as supported by Parrotta and Johnson and Perry and Morris The reason could be that when the investors have sufficient financial knowledge related to the stock market, industries, share, and bonds they are capable of making sound financial decisions, and similarly their stock market participation increases.

Previous studies have shown both negative and positive moderating roles in financial knowledge Hayat and Anwar, and some studies have preferred the moderating role of financial knowledge as compared to direct effects Aydemir and Aren, This research has supported the findings of previous studies which have shown that financially knowledgeable individuals show responsible financial behavior and individuals with low financial knowledge have a lower tendency to make risky investments such as in stocks Fox et al.

The results have shown that financial self-efficacy moderates the relationship between money attitudes and stock market participation as supported by Lim et al. It indicates that the investors who have greater control over their finances substantially participate in stock market activities as they trust in their financial capabilities Wang, This shows that when the market experiences volatility, investors with greater FSE will typically hold their feeling of long-term control over their monetary circumstance than investors with low FSE.

Further, risk attitudes have partially mediated the relationship between money attitudes and stock market participation as supported by Cheng et al. These results support the previous studies findings Wood and Zaichkowsky, and indicate that the investors who are risk-seekers increasingly participate in the stock market as supported by Cheng et al. It indicates that the investors who are risk-seekers tend to invest in stocks rather than bonds and those investors who play it safe increasingly invest in bonds as compared to stocks as supported by Keller and Siegrist b.

This research will help financial professionals, economic institutions, and policy makers to make better strategies and make financial decisions related to the stock market. This study has shown the importance of money attitudes of investors in their financial decisions related to stock market participation.

Further, the important role of the variables financial knowledge, financial self-efficacy, and risk attitudes have been identified in this relationship. This study can benefit governments and stock market professionals who need to know about the important influence of money attitudes of investors in their investment decisions.

More focus could be given to those factors that shape these money attitudes. This study can also help in understanding that investment attitudes are essential for differentiating beginner investors who have not had investment experience yet, thus have not built behavior related to investment strategies.

Further, this study has briefly explained the importance of variables like financial knowledge, financial self-efficacy, and risk attitudes which can also be focused by financial professionals in analyzing the investment behavior of the investors. This study will add to the existing knowledge on the attitude and behavior relationship, as in previous studies the attitudes have been studied in a broader perspective and there is little research on the subtypes of attitudes like money attitudes and risk attitudes, especially in relation with stock market participation.

This study has shown the importance of the money attitudes of investors and also their strong influence in their stock market participation decisions. A comprehensive set of traits clarifies the level of investments using stock market participation; money attitudes can take a predominant role. Further, attitudes anticipate behavior effectively just when there is a high correspondence between the attitude object and the behavioral option.

Moreover, this study will add to the literature on the moderating role of financial knowledge and financial self-efficacy and the mediating role of risk attitudes on the relationship between money attitudes and stock market participation. This study has used the theory of planned behavior to investigate the attitude and behavior relationship, which has provided proof of the validity of the TPB.

This research is an attempt to better understand why and when investors decide to participate in the stock market and whether their participation decisions are differentiated by their risk attitudes, financial knowledge, and financial self-efficacy. This research is of great interest because it intends to describe not only the importance of money attitudes in stock market participation decisions but also to clarify the influence of other variables that mostly go unnoticed.

From one perspective, the study fills the research gap present in previous studies that have not highlighted the psychological aspect of money attitudes for participation in the stock market. Further, this research explains the vital influence of intangible assets, for instance, risk attitudes and financial self-efficacy and resources, for example, financial knowledge importance for participating in the stock market. Although this research contributes to existing knowledge, it has some limitations.

Firstly, the sample size for this research was limited to active investors, and the reason for this sample size was the availability of online access for trading. Due to online trading access, the investors are less likely to visit the stock market as they can trade from their respective locations.

Therefore the sample size can be increased for a more in-depth understanding of these relationships in future studies. Secondly, this study has specifically focused on money attitudes as compared to previous studies which broadly studied attitudes, indicating the research gap. Hence, other subtypes of attitudes can also be considered in future studies. Other suggestions include finding the influence of socio-demographics in this relationship, comparative study explaining the differences among attitudes in different countries, and taking other moderating and mediating variables to enhance the predictive power of the model.

KS and AT helped in data collection at first and second stage. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Front Psychol. Published online Oct Anton Timoshin 3 I. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Mian Sajid Nazir, kp.

This article was submitted to Organizational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Apr 18; Accepted Aug The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher.

Keywords: money attitudes, stock market participation, risk attitudes, financial self-efficacy, financial knowledge. Literature Review Ajzen proposed the theory of planned behavior TPB which was extracted from the theory of reason actions Ajzen and Fishbein, Risk Attitudes and Stock Market Participation According to the traditional supposition, investors differ in their levels of risk aversion and different factors likewise influence their investment decisions Grinblatt et al.

Research Methodology The sample for this study consisted of active investors from Pakistan and the data were collected from the Pakistan Stock Exchange. Constructs Measurement items Factor loadings Money avoidance MA I do not deserve a lot of money when others have less than me. Open in a separate window. Variables No. Variable name Variable definition 1. People build up an attitude toward money on the premise of circumstances and experiences that one encounters over a lifetime.

Money worship Individuals with this characteristic are convinced that more cash will solve the majority of their issues, that there will never be a sufficient amount, and that cash brings power and happiness. Money status People who trust that money is status see a clear distinction between socio-economic classes. Money vigilance For some individuals, money is a profound source of shame and mystery, whether one has a lot or a little. The money vigilance element appears to be connected to alertness, readiness, watchfulness, and worry about money, and the feeling that one must be aware of pending inconvenience or threat.

Financial knowledge Financial knowledge is understanding critical financial terms and ideas needed to function day by day in society. Risk aversion is the behavior of humans who, when exposed to uncertainty, attempt to lower that uncertainty. A risk-seeker or risk-lover is a person who prefers risk. Results and Discussion Sample Profile The demographics presented in Table 5 showed that the majority of investors who participated in this study were male, i.

Source: Authors calculations. Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFA , Reliability, and Validity Confirmatory factor analysis CFA was applied to conform to the standards of convergent validity and discriminant validity of the constructs. Constructs Money avoidance Money worship Money status Money vigilance Stock market participation Risk attitudes Financial self-efficacy Financial knowledge Money avoidance 0.

The values in the diagonal are the square root of the AVE, and the off-diagonal values are the correlations among variables. The discriminant validity is achieved when the diagonal values are higher than the off-diagonal values. Bold values are the values in the diagonal are the square root of the AVE. Structural Model; Goodness of Fit Statistics After ensuring the validity and reliability of the variables, the established relationships in the conceptual framework were tested Figure 1.

Goodness of fit indices Structural model conceptual framework Norms References X2 Mediation Analysis For testing the mediating role of risk attitudes, two approaches were used, i. Practical Implications This research will help financial professionals, economic institutions, and policy makers to make better strategies and make financial decisions related to the stock market.

Theoretical Implications This study will add to the existing knowledge on the attitude and behavior relationship, as in previous studies the attitudes have been studied in a broader perspective and there is little research on the subtypes of attitudes like money attitudes and risk attitudes, especially in relation with stock market participation.

Conclusion and Future Research Directions This research is an attempt to better understand why and when investors decide to participate in the stock market and whether their participation decisions are differentiated by their risk attitudes, financial knowledge, and financial self-efficacy.

Data Availability Statement The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher. Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

References Adam A. Berlin: Springer; , 11— The theory of planned behaviour. Application of the theory of planned behaviour to leisure choice. Leisure Res. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behaviour. Predictors of investment intention in Indian stock markets: extending the theory of planned behaviour.

Bank Mark. Gender, stock market participation and financial literacy. Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. The moderation of financial literacy on the relationship between individual factors and risky investment intention. Stockholding in France: the role of financial literacy and information. Market volatility and financial satisfaction: the role of financial self-efficacy. Finance 20 42— Do the effects of individual factors on financial risk-taking behaviour diversify with financial literacy?

Kybernetes 46 — An investigation of financial literacy, money ethics and time preferences among college students: a structural equation model. Bank Market. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Representation of measurement error in marketing variables: review of approaches and extension to three-facet designs. Stock market literacy, trust, and participation. Finance 19 — Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control.

Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Individual risk attitudes and the composition of financial portfolios: evidence from German household portfolios. Finance 52 1— Amsterdam: Elsevier; , Vol.

The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Preference parameters and behavioural heterogeneity: an experimental approach in the health and retirement study. The effects of financial education in the workplace: evidence from a survey of employers.

Income hedging and portfolio decisions. Finance Econ. Political activism, information costs, and stock market participation. Neighbors matter: causal community effects and stock market participation. Finance 63 — Financial innovation and stock market participation.

Twin picks: disentangling the determinants of risk-taking in household portfolios. Finance 69 — Household finance. Finance 61 — The hierarchical structure of saving motives. From the editors: common method variance in international business research. Consumer credit search behaviour. Home Econ. An analysis of personal financial literacy among college students. Financial Serv.

Sustainability 10 : Advancing the theory of adaptive structuration: the development of a scale to measure faithfulness of appropriation. Cognitive abilities and portfolio choice. What individual investors value: some Australian evidence. Consumption and portfolio choice over the life cycle. Financial Stud. Personality traits and stock market participation.

Finance 33 34— Role of an attitude and financial literacy in stock market participation. IT Eng. Investor psychology in capital markets: evidence and policy implications. Financial literacy, housing value and household financial market participation: evidence from urban China. China Econ. Does financial self-efficacy explain gender differences in retirement saving strategies? Women Aging 15 83— Loss-aversion and household portfolio choice.

Finance 17 — Financial management practices and money attitudes as determinants of financial problems and dissatisfaction in young male Australian workers. Financial Counsel. Gender differences in financial well-being, financial socialization and financial knowledge among college students. Life Sci. Acta 8 — Financial knowledge, attitude and behaviour: evidence from the Austrian survey of financial literacy. Empirica Building the case for financial education.

Affairs 39 — Xiao J. Cham: Springer; , 47— Many sides of the coin: the psychology of money usage. The effect of anger and anxiety traits on investment decisions. Income and social communication: the demographics of stock market participation. World Econ. Trust, sociability, and stock market participation. Finance 15 — Corporate scandals and household stock market participation. Finance 71 — Defeatist beliefs as a mediator of cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and functioning in schizophrenia.

IQ and stock market participation. Finance 66 — Measures of individual risk attitudes and portfolio choice: evidence from pension participants. Effect of emotional intelligence on investment decision making with a moderating role of financial literacy. China USA Bus. Black , Multivariate Data Analysis.

Why do so few hold stocks? Preferences and beliefs about financial risk taking mediate the association between anterior insula activation and self-reported real-life stock trading. Impact of behavioural biases on investment decision; moderating role of financial literacy. Role Financial Liter. Portfolio choice in the presence of background risk. The psychology of financial decision-making: applications to trading, dealing, and investment analysis.

Financial Mark. Social interaction and stock-market participation. Finance 59 — Formulating clinical research hypotheses as structural equation models: a conceptual overview. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives.

Stock market expectations of Dutch households. Political preferences and stock market participation. Investing in stocks: the influence of financial risk attitude and values-related money and stock market attitudes. Money attitude typology and stock investment. Finance 7 88— The influence of behavioural factors in making investment decisions and performance: study on investors of Colombo Stock Exchange, Sri Lanka.

Asian J. Finance Acc. Money beliefs and financial behaviours: development of the klontz money script inventory. Financial Ther. Financial Plan. Do older investors make better investment decisions? Religious beliefs, gambling attitudes, and financial market outcomes. Financial Econ. Information sharing and stock market participation: evidence from extended families. Investor education and IPO participation. Finance Trade 55 — Financial stress, self-efficacy, and financial help-seeking behaviour of college students.

Development and validation of a financial self-efficacy scale. Helsinki: Aalto University. Planning and financial literacy: how do women fare? Financial literacy among the young. Affairs 44 — Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling.

Methods 1 : Depression babies: do macroeconomic experiences affect risk taking? A longitudinal study of change in domain-specific self-efficacy among older adults. B Psychol. Comparison of Mexican-American and Anglo-American attitudes toward money. Affairs 30 — How gender and financial self-efficacy influence investment risk taking. Consumer Stud. Plan format and participation in k plans: the moderating role of investor knowledge.

Public Pol. Number of brothers, risk sharing, and stock market participation. Finance : How riskily do I invest? The role of risk attitudes, risk perceptions, and overconfidence. Higher order risk attitudes, demographics, and financial decisions. Willingness to trial functional foods and vitamin supplements: the role of attitudes, subjective norms, and dread of risks. Food Q. The impact of financial attitudes and knowledge on financial management and satisfaction of recently married individuals.

Who is in control? The role of self-perception, knowledge, and income in explaining consumer financial behaviour. Segmentation of financial clients by attitudes and behaviour: : a comparison between Switzerland and Vietnam. Self-reports in organizational research: problems and prospects. Personal factors as antecedents of perceived financial well-being: evidence from Brazil. How knowledge and financial self-efficacy moderate the relationship between money attitudes and personal financial management behaviour.

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Money msn investing attributions in writing McAvay, G. Finance 59 — Clark-Murphy, M. Variables No. Table 4.
Money msn investing attributions in writing 203
Money msn investing attributions in writing First of all, through these four dimensions, the second-order construct money attitudes was measured, and then the impact of money attitudes on stock market participation was analyzed. Here are sites that I've found useful for researching China stocks. Individual investors and local bias. Search Results placeholder. Firstly, the sample size for this research was limited to active investors, and the reason for this sample size was the availability of online access for trading. Standard models of portfolio choice consider that knowledgeable investors make rational decisions to augment lifetime utility.

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